Category Archives: Terminology

Terminologies of Qur’an, Sufis or Arabic grammar

Qidam and Judeo-Christian views

Salaam to Shakir and Salaam to Everyone

It is of paramount importance to cognize that life is ancient! That term ancient in terminologies of Muslims and Sufis called Qidam or Qadim, one of the Divine Names and Attributes of Allah. In language of modern English we coin Qidam as Infinite-Past or Deep-Past.

Fundamentalists of Judeo-Christians view the time within the range of the Jewish calendar of about 7,000 years.

The most significant discovery of Darwin was the age of life: ranges in 100s of millions to even billions of years!

The fundamentalist Christians of his time could not accept Darwin’s theories and discoveries about life, due to their dogmatic view of Jewish calendar being about 7,000 years old. To them accepting Darwin’s theory and scientific evidence meant God was wrong. We hear that today from Right-wing Christians in USA and still amongst some Jews.

The most important pillar of Sufi metaphysics is that life is from infinite past! Humans originated from infinite past.

There are two ways of understanding scriptures:

  1. Interpretation: Scripture interprets the cosmos and life, the believers read the words of scriptures and try to match their meanings to the surrounding world and life. This leads to what we now know as Dark Ages which cloaked Europe for centuries.
  2. Ishara (Pointing): The cosmos and life interpret the words of scripture! The reversal is the enlightenment which Interpretation falls short providing.

I might add to the above that Interpretation without placing limits for the words in scriptures occludes the light and hence the dark times that befall the believers. Interpretation used in moderation is just fine, but limiting.

Therefore the most correct way I know of reading scripture e.g. Qur’an, per Qur’an’s own guidelines, is to use the cosmos and life within us to interpret the Divine Words:

41:53 In time We (Allah) shall make them fully understand Our Signs in the utmost horizons [of the universe] and within their own ­Selves, so that it will become clear unto them that this [revelation] is indeed the truth. [Still,] is it not enough [for them to know] that thy Sustainer is witness unto everything?

سَنُرِيهِمْ آيَاتِنَا فِي الْآفَاقِ وَفِي أَنفُسِهِمْ حَتَّى يَتَبَيَّنَ لَهُمْ أَنَّهُ الْحَقُّ أَوَلَمْ يَكْفِ بِرَبِّكَ أَنَّهُ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ شَهِيدٌ

Therefore let’s make Ishara i.e. use the cosmos and what we know of the life to point at the scripture’s words:

Given the life-time of radioactive Carbon and given the molecular commonality of genomes we can point at the words in scriptures that life is infinitely old, Human is from deep infinite past.


Equipped with the latter understanding we can now cognize the concept of Qidam i.e. the infinite past and history of Humanity in that infinite range of time or timeless-ness.

The latter is a fundamental area of research and understanding amongst the Sufis.




On Qidam again

Salaam Sayyidi and Salaam everyone

Two questions arised on Qidam again.

Given that each soul in presence of Divine made decision then and there in Qidam: To love Allah, or to love other-than-Allah. And given that this life is an investigation/projection of that primordial decision,

1 . Are we going back to Qidam again?
In other words , are Qidam, Akhirah, Azal the same terms?
2. What could be the wisdom to place us in this marvellous planet earth? We could still be staying in Qidam, loving Allah or other than Allah being in there! Why this short life span upon this planet?

Ma’rifa (Noesis) of Supplication: معرفة الدعاء

Ma’rifa 1.

When Allah wills to respond to a servant (hear a servant), gives him permission to make Du’a (Supplication) , said the Prophet.
كنز العمال – للمتقي الهندي
المجلد الثاني >> الإكمال من الباب الثامن الفصل الأول في فضل الدعاء والحث عليه

3156- إذا أراد الله أن يستجيب لعبد أذن له في الدعاء.
(الديلمي عن ابن عمر).


In other words due to unital nature of Tauhid (Divine Oneness) no mind or heart could ever fathom a supplication since the Oneness does not allow any other mind or intellect or spirit to near or to approach.

But Allah gives the servant the ability to make supplication; in other words the supplicant does not commence the supplication it is Allah who commences any and all supplications. Supplicant is secondary, though to our Nafs (Self) ambiguously seems that the Self is the supplicant commencing the supplication while Allah is secondary to respond.


Ishara 1.

A plant situated in darkness has no particular direction to direct its growth. Now shines the light, the plant grows and moves towards the light. Allah is the light and you are the plant in darkness, when you move towards the light i.e. in supplication, the light had shone first, you supplicate second!

It is absurd that plant in darkness could ignite any light! Similarly it is absurd that you are supplicating  in and of your Self, it was Allah who called upon you first, you reacted and that reaction formed the supplication. Supplications are byproducts of Allah fulfilling the servants.

For whom the supplication has commenced, (already) gates of fulfillment had had opened for, said the Prophet.
كنز العمال – للمتقي الهندي
المجلد الثاني >> الإكمال من الباب الثامن الفصل الأول في فضل الدعاء والحث عليه

3154- من فتح له من الدعاء منكم فتحت له أبواب الإجابة.
(ش عن ابن عمر).




Ma’rifa 2.

The provision is not diminished by disobedience, and also not increased by good deeds, yet the forsaking of supplication is a form of disobedience! said the Prophet.
الجامع الصغير. – لجلال الدين السيوطي
المجلد الثاني >> [تتمة باب حرف الألف]

1999- إن الرزق لا تنقصه المعصية، ولا تزيده الحسنة، وترك الدعاء معصية
[“ولا تزيده الحسنة”: أي بالنسبة لما في العلم القديم الأزلي]ـ
التخريج (مفصلا): الطبراني في الصغير عن أبي سعيد


Your provisions, length of life, happiness or sorrows, gain and loss, health and illness, are all Primordial Decisions set in Azal (Sempiternity), and this life an investigation of such infinite past decisions, like unto a motion picture enacting dramatizing a historical event.

The Prophet explains why sometimes the most criminal are the richest and most affluent, yet the most pious the poorest the weakest, not always true though, but explains that Nafs (Self) commands you to do good so you might get more rewards in terms of daily provisions, and that is not always true, most times false.

The Prophet continues with an advice to avoid being a hapless fatalist, that in spite of the said earlier claims the servant should be supplicating often.


Adab (Etiquette) of Supplication

You could easily derive the circumstances of life that are prerequisite for a properly performed supplication:

  1. Proper language to speak during the good times and hard times
  2. Attention to orphans in you community and nationwide in your country
  3. Urging to feed the people at difficult times
  4. Avoid hoarding other people’s inheritance e.g. family members, wealth of other nations by perpetual greed and warring
  5. Controlling one’s infatuations and emotions for accumulations (of all kinds)

89:15 BUT AS FOR man,  whenever his Sustainer tries him by His generosity and by letting him enjoy a life of ease, he says, “My Sustainer has been [justly] generous towards me”;

فَأَمَّا الْإِنسَانُ إِذَا مَا ابْتَلَاهُ رَبُّهُ فَأَكْرَمَهُ وَنَعَّمَهُ فَيَقُولُ رَبِّي أَكْرَمَنِ


89:16 whereas, whenever He tries him by straitening his means of livelihood, he says, “My Sustainer has disgraced me!”

وَأَمَّا إِذَا مَا ابْتَلَاهُ فَقَدَرَ عَلَيْهِ رِزْقَهُ فَيَقُولُ رَبِّي أَهَانَنِ


89:17 But nay, nay, [O men, consider all that you do and fail to do:] you are not generous towards the orphan,

كَلَّا بَل لَّا تُكْرِمُونَ الْيَتِيمَ


89:18 and you do not urge one another to feed the needy,

وَلَا تَحَاضُّونَ عَلَى طَعَامِ الْمِسْكِينِ


89:19 and you devour the inheritance [of others] with devouring greed,

وَتَأْكُلُونَ التُّرَاثَ أَكْلًا لَّمًّا


89:20 and you love wealth with boundless love!

وَتُحِبُّونَ الْمَالَ حُبًّا جَمًّا
الجامع الصغير.  – لجلال الدين السيوطي
المجلد الثاني >> [تتمة باب حرف الألف]

6. Silent supplication
الجامع الصغير.  – لجلال الدين السيوطي
المجلد الثاني >> [تتمة باب حرف الألف]

1250- أفضل الدعاء دعاء المرء لنفسه
التخريج (مفصلا): الحاكم في المستدرك عن عائشة

7. Additional supplications added for the Prophet and his family:

Supplication is veiled until adoration and peace sent for Muhammad and members of his household
الجامع الصغير – لجلال الدين السيوطي
المجلد الثالث >> فصل: في المحلى بأل من حرف الدال

4266 – الدعاء محجوب عن الله، حتى يصلى على محمد وأهل بيته
التخريج (مفصلا): أبو الشيخ <ابن حبان> عن علي



Long Supplications

41:51 And, too, when We bestow Our blessings upon man, he tends to turn aside and keep aloof [from remembering Us]; but as soon as evil fortune touches him, he is full of LENGTHY prayers!

وَإِذَا أَنْعَمْنَا عَلَى الْإِنسَانِ أَعْرَضَ وَنَأى بِجَانِبِهِ وَإِذَا مَسَّهُ الشَّرُّ فَذُو دُعَاء عَرِيضٍ


This is a problem, lack of Etiquette for Divine Presence and lack of manners during the supplications to be overly wordy and lengthy and yet just the day before we were aloof away from anything relating to Allah!

Improper conduct and behavior to remember Allah only when in need or in fear.


Short Supplications

Best supplication is short supplication:

Most excellent supplication is Al-Hamd-u Li-Llah-i (All perpetual praise and adoration for Allah), said the Prophet.
الجامع الصغير.  – لجلال الدين السيوطي
المجلد الثاني >> [تتمة باب حرف الألف]

1253- أفضل الذكر لا إله إلا الله، وأفضل الدعاء الحمد لله
التخريج (مفصلا): الترمذي والنسائي وابن ماجة وابن حبان في صحيحه والحاكم في المستدرك عن جابر


Best supplication is Al-‘Istighfar (Seeking forgiveness from Allah), said the Prophet.
الجامع الصغير. – لجلال الدين السيوطي
المجلد الثالث >> باب: حرف الخاء

4006 – خير الدعاء الاستغفار
التخريج (مفصلا): الحاكم في تاريخه عن علي


The Al-‘Istighfar supplication of Moses peace be upon him, short and received immediate reply:

28:16 [And] he (Moses) prayed: O my Sustainer! Verily, I have sinned against myself! FORGIVE ME!” And He/Allah forgave him – for, verily, He/Allh alone is truly forgiving, a dispenser of grace.

قَالَ رَبِّ إِنِّي ظَلَمْتُ نَفْسِي فَاغْفِرْ لِي فَغَفَرَ لَهُ إِنَّهُ هُوَ الْغَفُورُ الرَّحِيمُ


Prophet was asked by a bedouin to teach him a supplication that Allah might give him some benefit from, Prophet told him to say:

O my Lord for You all praise, and all gratitude for You as well, while all affairs return to you (for judgement and fulfillment)
كنز العمال – للمتقي الهندي
المجلد الثاني >> الأدعية المطلقة

5097- عن سعد أن أعرابيا قال للنبي صلى الله عليه وسلم: علمني دعاء لعل الله أن ينفعني به، قال قل: اللهم لك الحمد كله، ولك الشكر كله، وإليك يرجع الأمر كله.



© 2015-2002,  Dara O Shayda


Silence: A Modern Practical Guide

In our times Muslims are corrupted to believe that exposing female’s hair or being clean shaven or consuming alcoholic drinks or improper sexual relations are truly the major sins of this religion and terrific amounts of our energies dedicated to hype and practice these aspects of our religion with little thought and understanding of what was said by the Prophet peace be upon him!

At this specific point of time, the root of most evil amongst the Muslims and the very reason for their perpetual devastation is the words they choose to utter!

When the Muslim is supposed to speak he or she stays silent, when the Muslim is supposed to be silent, speaks!

Millions are killed and displaced because of the criminal speech of few of us!

The Prophet said: (In Hell) Is there anything else that causes the people to fall on their faces, except the harvest of their tongues?

Our spiritual voyage has two extremes:

Of good:

22:24. And they are guided towards the best of the speech, and/while guided towards the path of the Al-Hamid (Most Praiseworthy, Allah)!

وَهُدُوا إِلَى الطَّيِّبِ مِنَ الْقَوْلِ وَهُدُوا إِلَى صِرَاطِ الْحَمِيدِ

Of evil:

The most evil amongst my people the evil scholars, said the Prophet.

This is the person who speaks of Allah and the religion and is most criminal in his speech, since he speaks for worldly gains (salaried) and fame(tenured).
الجامع الصغير – لجلال الدين السيوطي
المجلد الرابع >> باب: حرف الشين
4864- شرار أمتي [لفظ رواية البزار: “شرار الناس”]ـ شرار العلماء في الناس
التخريج (مفصلا): البزار عن معاذ
تصحيح السيوطي: حسن


And byproduct of these evil scholars, towards the end of times: when there is much talk and good deeds are scant!
كنز العمال – للمتقي الهندي
المجلد الرابع عشر >> الإكمال من أشراط الساعة الكبرى
38564- من اقتراب الساعة أن ترفع الأشرار وتوضع الاخيار ويفتح القول ويحبس العمل، ويقرأ في القوم المثناة ليس فيه أحد ينكرها، قيل: وما المثناة؟ قال: ما كتب سوى كتاب الله.
(طب – عن ابن عمرو)


Practical Guide to Cure the Excess of Speech

Know that improper speech is an ailment, like any other, as the cure of illness requires medical knowledge and actions, the cure of one’s tongue requires knowledge and action. One without the other will not remedy the ailing  disorder.

Knowledge: know that the foulest part of you is your tongue, not your sexual organ or nudity or consumption of alcohol, simply the worst you could do is speak foul words!


Knowledge: know that Allah taught you speech

55:4. IT/He (Allah) taught him (human being) articulation of speech

عَلَّمَهُ الْبَيَانَ

Allah taught you to write by pen

96:4 who has taught [man] the use of the pen

الَّذِي عَلَّمَ بِالْقَلَمِ

If you corrupt your speech or your pen, then you have offended Allah who neared you in closest proximity when you learned speech and writing.


Knowledge: know that the very good and beautiful end of the spiritual path is beautified speech:

22:24. And they are guided towards the best of the speech, and/while guided towards the path of the Hamid (Most Praiseworthy, Allah)!

وَهُدُوا إِلَى الطَّيِّبِ مِنَ الْقَوْلِ وَهُدُوا إِلَى صِرَاطِ الْحَمِيدِ

Azizam (My Dearest) you will not reach the end of the path by much prayers or warfare or charity or knowledge or acceptance of people or wearing some cloth on your head or growth of facial hair, but by beautification of your speech.


Knowledge: The most noble form of Islam is that of silence and proper use of language:

Most noble of Islam is to safeguard people from your tongue, said the Prophet.
فيض القدير، شرح الجامع الصغير، الإصدار 2.15 – للإمامِ المناوي
الجـزء الأول >> حرف الهمزة.

1066 – (أشرف الإيمان) أي من أرفع خصال الإيمان، وكذا يقال فيما بعده (أن يأمنك الناس) أي يأمن منك الناس المعصومون على دمائهم وأموالهم ونسائهم وأعراضهم، فلا تتعرض لهم بمكروه يخالف الشرع، وكل المسلم على المسلم حرام (وأشراف الإسلام أن يسلم الناس من لسانك) فلا تطلقه بما يضرهم (ويدك) فلا تبسطهما بما يؤذيهم (وأشرف الهجرة أن تهجر السيئات) أي تترك فعلها لأن ذلك هو الجهاد الأكبر، فإذا جاهد المكلف نفسه وأذلها وأكرهها على ترك ما ركز فيها وجبلت عليه من إتيان المعاصي حتى انقادت ومرنها على ذلك حتى اطمأنت وصارت بعد ما كانت أمارة مطمئنة تاركة باختيارها للسيئات داعية إلى لزوم الطاعات فقد حصل على رتبة هي أشرف من الهجرة الظاهرة التي هي الانتقال من دار الكفر إلى دار السلام



Action: Per saying of the Prophet, the silence is associated to the kindness for the guest and good behaviour with the neighbour:

Who believes in Allah and the the Hereafter, to say good or be silent, and not to annoy his neighbour and to be generous to his guest, said  the Prophet peace be upon him.

By association, not by inference, we cognize the importance of silence and association to the other two important said forms of conduct. Therefore for the persons intending to tie their tongue, practices of kindness to the  guest and neighbour are of paramount importance.

صحيح البخاري، الإصدار 2.03 – للإمام البخاري
الجزء الرابع >> 84 – كتاب الرقاق. >> 23 – باب: حفظ اللسان.
6110 – حدثني عبد العزيز بن عبد الله: حدثنا إبراهيم بن سعد، عن ابن شهاب، عن أبي سلمة، عن أبي هريرة رضي الله عنه قال:
قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم: (من كان يؤمن بالله واليوم الآخر فليقل خيراً أو ليصمت، ومن كان يؤمن بالله واليوم الآخر فلا يؤذ جاره، ومن كان يؤمن بالله واليوم الآخر فليكرم ضيفه).


Action: Silence and deep focus on studying and researching the Divine Gifts Allah has bestowed upon us in the nature and cosmos that are abound. Again by association:

وَخَشَعَت الْأَصْوَاتُ لِلرَّحْمَنِ فَلَا تَسْمَعُ إِلَّا هَمْسًا

20:108. and all sounds will be hushed before the Al-Rahman (Most Gracious), and thou wilt hear nothing but a faint sough in the air.

The Divine Name Al-Rahman was used in this verse, who is the giver of Divine Gifts, gifts from speech to life to this planet to the cosmos and etc. The verse tells us that when humanity appears in presence of Al-Rahman, everyone maintains silence, and therefore by association when we are in presence of Al-Rahman’s gifts of creativity and engineering, vicariously we maintain silence to study to research to cognize the vast artful engineering that surrounds us, for that is the only passage towards Al-Rahman. Thus silence to observe the nature and focused thoughts to understand these gifts.


Action: Talk about what is your business, if some subject matter is not your business avoid talking. For example, talk about your own woman and children, stop talking about other people’s women and children. Talk about your own affairs, not your neighbour’s affairs. Talk about correcting your own foul deeds, halt talking about your neighbours’ and friends’ foul deeds.


Action: If you are talking and suddenly a pleasure appears in your heart of what magnificent words rolling off your tongue, halt and maintain silence and bow out in shame! For that was your Nafs confusing you and misguiding you with pleasures of your own speech.


Action: Avoid using Facebook and any such criminal establishments. Avoid talking non-sense about all matters, specially about your religion. If you go to a bar and drink and  fornicate every night, is better for you than login to Facebook and talk ignorant words about Islam with total strangers, day in day out!


Action: Use the digital equipment e.g. MP3 players and headphones to listen to learned lectures, audio books, sounds of nature, melodic and pleasant sounds of non-offensive music, to avoid using your tongue. So when you feel the urge to backbite or talk nonsense or excessive petty talk, put on the headphones and listen to something better, thus tie your tongue by avoidance!


Action: Silence about what you do not do! Only speak about what you actually do, and do so repeatedly:

61:3 Most loathsome is it in the sight of God that you say what you do not do!

كَبُرَ مَقْتًا عِندَ اللَّهِ أَن تَقُولُوا مَا لَا تَفْعَلُونَ

If you do not spend time on nightly worships then do not talk about worship. If you enjoy the improper conduct with women then do not preach chastity.

One might be weak and cannot maintain proper relationship with women (as an example), but is a generous donor, so then talk about generosity and charity and leave chastity to silence.

One might be a good worshiper and very spiritual but suffers from ailment of alcoholism, then talk about worships and do not talk about Shariah.


Remark1: Silence of Mind, to silence the thoughts of anger towards others, plan aggression or offense to hurt others, envious thoughts, covetous thoughts and schemes.

Remark 2: Silence of Heart, to silence to dampen the anxious flip-flop of the heart when it is not content with one’s provision or destiny. Feeling injured and left out while others are prospering otherwise:

89:15. But as for man,  whenever his Sustainer tries him by ITs/His generosity and by letting him enjoy a life of ease, he says, “My Sustainer has been [justly] generous towards me”;

فَأَمَّا الْإِنسَانُ إِذَا مَا ابْتَلَاهُ رَبُّهُ فَأَكْرَمَهُ وَنَعَّمَهُ فَيَقُولُ رَبِّي أَكْرَمَنِ

89:16. whereas, whenever IT/He tries him by straitening his means of livelihood, he says, “My Sustainer has disgraced me!”

وَأَمَّا إِذَا مَا ابْتَلَاهُ فَقَدَرَ عَلَيْهِ رِزْقَهُ فَيَقُولُ رَبِّي أَهَانَنِ


To silence, even the prayers, asking what Allah bestowed on others. Except when it comes to knowledge, to be verbose and constantly asking for increase of one’s knowledge:

20:114. And say: My Lord increase me in knowledge

وَقُل رَّبِّ زِدْنِي عِلْمًا


Remark 3: The most important Jihad is that of speaking against a unjust Imam or ruler! Even a religious ruler:
The most beloved Jihad for Allah is a true/just word said to a tyrannical Imam (Religious leader) or Sultan (Governor), said the Prophet in two versions of the same Hadith.

الجامع الصغير. – لجلال الدين السيوطي
المجلد الأول >> باب: حرف الألف
210- أحب الجهاد إلى الله كلمة حق تقال لإمام جائر
التخريج (مفصلا): أحمد في مسنده والطبراني في الكبير عن أبي أمامة
تصحيح السيوطي: حسن


So speak against the religious Imam who corrupts our youth and sends them to certain death and sits at home enjoying his daily life!


© Dara O Shayda 2015

Ma’rifa (Unlearnt Knowledge): العارف, عرف, المعرفة


Discussion    Join

Azizam (My Dearest)

What this Rahi (Author) writes below is not Ma’rifa, it is the knowledge or description of Ma’rifa, something totally different, all that which constitutes Ma’rifa is inside you, it needs no explanation, from before you were born and after you expire, you need no one to unearth your Mar’rifa.



Fragrance, perfume, aroma, the original meaning. ‘Its ‘Arf hit me’ means I smelled its scent. Used both for pleasing or foul scents.

47:6. And will admit them to the Garden where her (Garden’s) aroma perfumed them
وَيُدْخِلُهُمُ الْجَنَّةَ عَرَّفَهَا لَهُمْ

Garden’s aroma perfumed them: They were made to yearn for this Garden as if a great aroma hit them which caused them to seek the source of the great perfume!

مفردات ألفاظ القرآن. – للأصفهاني
كتاب العين

وأصله من: عرفت. أي: أصبت عرفه. أي: رائحته، أو من أصبت عرفه.
وعرفه: جعل له عرفا. أي: ريحا طيبا. قال في الجنة: {عرفها لهم} <محمد/6>، أي: طيبها زينها

Ishara 1 (Pointing)

Imagine the first time you smelled a rose. Years passed by and again you are brought a rose, you smell it again and the aroma immediately triggers the memory of the first sniffing of that particular rose’s fragrance from years back! While you could not explain anything of the rose’s odor, beyond the reach of words, however you could remember it by means of your thoughts and memories, as a form of knowledge by the instrumentation of the olfactory nerves in your nose and the neuronal processes of your brain (i.e. processes):

Ma’rifa, ‘Irfan

To grasp something by instrumentation of thinking and musing its effects and traces (intellection processes), it is a particularized form of ‘Ilm (Knowledge). You could talk about your ‘Arf/Ma’refa for Allah i.e. knowing of Allah by observing ITs doings and reminiscence of ITs behavior and existence. You could not say you know Allah since IT is unreachable, ‘know’ as in Ilm (Knowledge), instead you ‘know of’ Allah by the traces of ITs handcraft.

Remark 1: For English language we use the term to Know-of something vs. to know something, to particularize this form of knowing as in the language Arab applicable to the word Ma’rifa or ‘Irfan or ‘Urf. We know of what Allah does or builds or manages, we know of Allah’s way of conducting affairs, but we cannot possibly know or cognize anything of Allah’s actual being (Dhat).

Remark 2: Getting to know something or someone, or getting acquainted with something or someone as opposed to know.

Remark 3: Seeing the magnificence of the Divine Engineering around you on this planet in this cosmos, is like unto the second smelling of the rose above, you suffer from the amnesia of the bio-psychological birth, and yet observing this world triggers memories of infinite-past tryst with Allah prior to your descend to this earth. That form of knowledge and memory is Ma’rifa.

مفردات ألفاظ القرآن. – للأصفهاني
كتاب العين

-المعرفة والعرفان: إدراك الشيء بتفكر وتدبر لأثره، وهو أخص من العلم، ويضاده الإنكار، ويقال: فلان يعرف الله ولا يقال: يعلم الله متعديا إلى مفعول واحد، لما كان معرفة البشر لله هي بتدبر آثاره دون إدراك ذاته، ويقال: الله يعلم كذا، ولا يقال: يعرف كذا، لما كانت المعرفة تستعمل في العلم القاصر المتوصل به بتفكر، وأصله من: عرفت. أي: أصبت عرفه. أي: رائحته، أو من أصبت عرفه. أي: خده، يقال عرفت كذا. قال تعالى: {فلما جاءهم ما عرفوا} <البقرة/89>، {فعرفهم وهم له منكرون} <يوسف/58>، {فلعرفتهم بسيماهم} <محمد/30>، {يعرفونه كما يعرفون أبناءهم} <البقرة/146>.
ويضاد المعرفة الإنكار، والعلم الجهل. قال: {يعرفون نعمة الله ثم ينكرونها} <النحل/83>، والعارف في تعارف قوم: هو المختص بمعرفة الله، ومعرفة ملكوته، وحسن معاملته تعالى، يقال: عرفه كذا. قال تعالى: {عرف بعضه وأعرض عن بعض} <التحريم/3>، وتعارفوا: عرف بعضهم بعضا. قال: {لتعارفوا} <الحجرات/13>، وقال: {يتعارفون بينهم} <يونس/45>، وعرفه: جعل له عرفا. أي: ريحا طيبا. قال في الجنة: {عرفها لهم} <محمد/6>، أي: طيبها زينها (انظر وضح البرهان بتحقيقنا 2/235) لهم، وقيل: عرفها لهم بأن وصفها لهم، وشوقهم إليها وهداهم.
وقوله: {فإذا أفضتم من عرفات} <البقرة/198>، فاسم لبقعة مخصوصة، وقيل: سميت بذلك لوقوع المعرفة فيها بين آدم وحواء (وهذا قول الضحاك: انظر: شفاء الغرام بأخبار البلد الحرام 1/306)، وقيل: بل لتعرف العباد إلى الله تعالى بالعبادات والأدعية. والمعروف: اسم لكل فعل يعرف بالعقل أو الشرع حسنه، والمنكر: ما ينكر بهما. قال: {يأمرون بالمعروف وينهون عن المنكر} <آل عمران/104>، وقال تعالى: {وأمر بالمعروف وانه عن المنكر} <القمان/17>، {وقلن قولا معروفا} <الأحزاب/32>، ولهذا قيل للاقتصاد في الجود: معروف؛ لما كان ذلك مستحسنا في العقول وبالشرع. نحو: {ومن كان فقيرا فليأكل بالمعروف} <النساء/6>، {إلا من أمر بصدقة أو معروف} <النساء/114>، {وللمطلقات متاع بالمعروف} <البقرة/241>، أي: بالاقتصاد والإحسان، وقوله: {فأمسكوهن بمعروف أو فارقوهن بمعروف} <الطلاق/2>، وقوله: {قول معروف ومغفرة خير من صدقة} <البقرة/263>، أي: رد بالجميل ودعاء خير من صدقة كذلك، والعرف: المعروف من الإحسان، وقال: {وأمر بالعرف} <الأعراف/199>. وعرف الفرس والديك معروف، وجاء القطا عرفا. أي: متتابعة. قال تعالى: {والمرسلات عرفا} <المرسلات/1>، والعراف كاكاهن إلا أن العراف يختص بمن يخبر بالأحوال المستقبلة، والكاهن بمن يخبر بالأحوال الماضية، والعريف بمن يعرف الناس ويعرفهم، قال الشاعر:
316 – بعثوا إلي عريفهم يتوسم
(هذا عجز بيت، وشطره:
أو كلما وردت عكاظ قبيلة
والبيت لطريف بن تميم العنبري، وهو في اللسان (عرف) ؛ وكتاب سيبويه 2/378؛ وشرح الأبيات لابن السيرافي 2/389)
وقد عرف فلان عرافة: إذا صار مختصا بذلك، فالعريف: السيد المعروف قال الشاعر:
317 – بل كل قوم وإن عزوا وإن كثروا * عريفهم بأثافي الشر مرجوم
(البيت لعلقمة بن عبدة، وهو في ديوانه ص 64؛ والمفضليات ص 401؛ واللسان (عرف) )
ويوم عرفة يوم الوقوف بها، وقوله: {وعلى الأعراف رجال} <الأعراف/ 46>، فإنه سور بين الجنة والنار، والاعتراف: الإقرار، وأصله: إظهار معرفة الذنب، وذلك ضد الجحود. قال تعالى: {فاعترفوا بذنبهم} <الملك/11>، {فاعترفنا بذنوبنا} <غافر/11>

Ma’rifa Hali: State of Ma’rifa

There are two categories of Ma’rifa

1. Cognitive (‘Ilmi): As mentioned above intellection processes cause the person to remember or cognize some form of knowledge, it has an opposite i.e. ignorance

2. Situational (Hāli): The person finds himself or herself ‘situated’ in a ‘state’ wherein there is knowledge found, this knowledge was there at all times (i.e. no opposite of ignorance), and will be there for all times

Ishara 2 (Pointing) : Situational Ma’rifa

A person opens a cell from his or her body and within the cell finds chromosomes and within chromosomes finds genes, and within genes finds nucleotides and these compose some sort of alphabet, discrete units of ancient memory, sequenced in large chains, for example SCNN1A:


As we know this is a language forming knowledge about the operations and structure of our bodies and our minds and also is a form of memory passed on from parents to their children.

This example ‘points’ at the  Situational Ma’rifa, a knowledge within us, born with it, and die with it, even if our bodies and minds destroyed, this Ma’rifa would go on living and could be stored in other life forms or machines. And yet we did not learn this knowledge, we do not even know where it came from, but it is therein, it is terrifically ancient, and we find it ubiquitously every which way inside.

There was no time, will be no time this knowledge was not there or will not be there, therefore it has no counterpart of ‘ignorance’.

And all the while this Situational Ma’rifa is hugely particularized per person, no two have exactly the same.

Therefore in the language of Sufis you might say: the genes inside every cell of your body point at the Ma’rifa within you! Unlearnt knowledge with no opposite of ignorance.

Ma’rifa: The Purpose for Being, Creation

51:56. And We did not create the Jinns and the humans except to serve Us (‘Ibada)

وما خلقت الجن والإنس إلا ليعبدون

It is clear that Allah does not need creatures to do something for IT or serve IT, for any purpose for any cause. So the verse does need thinking:

Qushairi Treatise

Ibn Abbas said: (except to serve Us) means ‘except to get to know Us’

Dara: No matter what they do or what is done to them (extant beings), reveals the Ma’rifa for Allah. Their birth reveals the Ma’rifa for Allah, their bodies and minds reveal Ma’rifa for Allah, their aging and death reveals Ma’eifa for Allah, they have no choice but carrying this Ma’rifa within them, extant or extinct the Ma’rifa is unaltered.

الرسالة القشيرية
سمعت أبا حاتم الصوفي، يقول: سمعت أبا نصر الطوسي يقول: سئل رُويم عن أول فرض افترضه الله عزَّ وجلَّ على خلقه ما هو? فقال: المعرفة؛ لقوله جلَّ ذكره: “وما خلقت الجن والإنس إلا ليعبدون“. قال ابن عباس: إلا ليعرفون.

Qushairi Treatise

Allah said;

22:74. And they did not give Allah due measure, as IT deserves
وما قدروا الله حق قدره

Some said in Tafsir (Exegesis): They did not get to know Allah, as IT deserves to be known.

الرسالة القشيرية
باب المعرفة بالله
قال الله تعالى:”وما قدروا الله حق قدره” .جاء في التفسير: وما عرفوا الله حق معرفته.

Tusi’s Elucidation of Gradations of Ma’rifa

To know the Divine has many gradations. As a metaphor, to know of the fire by hearing from others that it destroys and reduces to nothing any object coming close to it. If something is removed away from its proximity, object remains as its original nature and such destructive entity is called fire! This gradation of knowing in regards to Allah, gives the knower the title of Muqallad or the imitator. This is the person who has listened to knowledgeable folk and accepted their sayings as truth.

The next level is that of a person that has been exposed to smoke, however has not seen the fire. They conclude from the smoke, as an item of evidence that there is a source that from it emanates the smoke and the smoke is just a byproduct, the real entity is that unseen fire. These are the theoretical people who understand Allah only by means of rational thinking.

The next level is that of a person who is exposed to the warmth of the fire, but did not see the fire. They feel the presence of fire by feeling its heat. In regards to Allah these are the Mu’min (Believer). They feel the presence of a Creator, but only from the other side of a veil.

The higher levels are those who could use the properties of this fire and provide beneficial services e.g. cooking and melting and so on. They find a special form of pleasure by being able to use this fire and make useful things. Still these are the folk who deal with the knowledge linked to the fire and use that knowledge for some good purposes.

Above this level of knowing is that of seeing: the person uses the light from fire to see all things! These folk are called ‘Arif (The knower of Unlearnt Knowledge).

The levels continue upwards however the highest level is: ‘Arif burnt in fire and is no longer! Evanesced.
Source: ‘Ausaf Al-Ashraf   by Naseriddin Tusi

Qushairi Treatise

‘Arif consumed by the sea of Tahqiq (Actualizations). Ma’rifa comprised of waves drowning: rise and surround (and hence drown the ‘Arif). (By Ali Daqqaq)

الرسالة القشيرية
سمعت الأستاذ أبا علي الدقاق يقول: العارف مستهلك في بحار التحقيق؛ كما قال قائلهم: المعرفة أمواج تغطّ. ترفع وتحط.

: Tahqiq (Actualizations) when the realities of things are made patent for seeing.

Kashaf Al-Mahjub

The difference between the ‘Alim (Scholar) and ‘Arif (The knower of Unlearnt Knowledge)

The ‘Alim (Scholar) subsists upon his own Nafs (Self) while ‘Arif subsists exclusively upon Allah.

Dara: Scholar relies on his attendance in schools and his reading and memorizing books and in general his personal effort. Not that ‘Arif does not read books or does not go to school and does not attempt to learn, but he or she exclusively relies on Allah to be taught:
2:282. And safeguard against Allah’s (wrath), and Allah teaches you

وَٱتَّقُواْ ٱللَّهَ‌ۖ وَيُعَلِّمُڪُمُ ٱللَّهُ‌ۗ

© 2015-2002,  Dara O Shayda

Hur: حُورُ العِينِ, حَوارِيٌّ


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The Orientalists have translated the Arabic word Hur in an erotic pornographic way, which suited the cultures they came from and suited the funding they needed to continue with their professions. The iconic imprint in the mind of the Westerner is particularly remarkable when it comes to the word Hur: images conjured of ‘virgins of paradise’.

This small note researches the origins of the word in Qur’an and Christianity in order to allow the readers a room to breathe some new thoughts and hopefully defeat the iconoclastic ceaseless tempest of attacks on Islam in American/Western media. As the reader follows the lexicon of meanings from ancient collection of quotes, discovers that the concept has no sexuality in nature, specially when applied to women.

All references from Lisan Al-Arab by Ibn Manzour Afriqi (African):

Ha-Wa-Ra anything that is intensely white and its dark (colors) is quite blackened e.g. white of the cornea contrasted against the black of the iris.

Originally applied to cows and antelopes with dark eyes and white bodies, by means of the construct of ‘Isti’ara (Borrowing) in the language of Arab, the word borrowed and applied exclusively to the female of human species.

The Bedouin called certain women Hawwariyyat (Plural of Hur) for their personal hygiene and cleanliness, as opposed to the untidiness of Bedouins:

والأَعْرابُ تسمي نساء الأَمصار حَوَارِيَّاتٍ لبياضهن وتباعدهن عن قَشَفِ الأَعراب بنظافتهن؛

Remark 1: White color does not necessarily mean white as the color of cotton, it means anything that is pure and has its original color:

وكل شيء خَلَصَ لَوْنُه، فهو حَوارِيٌّ

Remark 2: The purity of a woman can then be rendered by borrowing the word Hur contrasting the whiteness of cornea to blackness of the iris. From the dictionaries of the ancient Arab it is clear that the word does not refer to erotic women with black eyes!

لسان العرب
والحَوَرُ: أَن يَشْتَدَّ بياضُ العين وسَوادُ سَوادِها وتستدير حدقتها وترق جفونها ويبيضَّ ما حواليها؛ وقيل: الحَوَرُ شِدَّةُ سواد المُقْلَةِ في شدّة بياضها في شدّة بياض الجسد، ولا تكون الأَدْماءُ حَوْراءَ؛ قال الأَزهري: لا تسمى حوراء حتى تكون مع حَوَرِ عينيها بيضاءَ لَوْنِ الجَسَدِ؛ قال الكميت:
ودامـــتْ قُـــدُورُك، لـــلـــسَّـــاعِــــيَيْ        ن في المَحْلِ، غَرْغَرَةً واحْوِرارَا
أَراد بالغَرْغَرَةِ صَوْتَ الغَلَيانِ، وبالاحورار بياضَ الإِهالة والشحم؛ وقيل: الحَوَرُ أَن تسودّ العين كلها مثل أَعين الظباء والبقر، وليس في بني آدم حَوَرٌ، وإِنما قيل للنساء حُورُ العِينِ لأَنهن شبهن بالظباء والبقر.
وقال كراع: الحَوَرُ أَن يكون البياض محدقاً بالسواد كله وإِنما يكون هذا في البقر والظباء ثم يستعار للناس؛ وهذا إِنما حكاه أَبو عبيد في البَرَج غير أَنه لم يقل إِنما يكون في الظباء والبقر. وقال الأَصمعي: لا أَدري ما الحَوَرُ في العين وقد حَوِرَ حَوَراً واحْوَرَّ، وهو أَحْوَرُ.
وامرأَة حَوْراءُ: بينة الحَوَرِ. وعَيْنٌ حَوْراءٌ، والجمع حُورٌ، ويقال:احْوَرَّتْ عينه احْوِرَاراً؛ فأَما قوله:
عَيْناءُ حَورَاءُ منَ العِينِ الحِير
فعلى الإِتباع لعِينٍ؛ والحَوْراءُ: البيضاء، لا يقصد بذلك حَوَر عينها.
والأَعْرابُ تسمي نساء الأَمصار حَوَارِيَّاتٍ لبياضهن وتباعدهن عن قَشَفِ الأَعراب بنظافتهن؛ قال:
فقلتُ: إِنَّ الحَوارِيَّاتِ مَعْطَـبَةٌ،        إِذا تَفَتَّلْنَ من تَحْتِ الجَلابِيبِ
يعني النساء؛ وقال أَبو جِلْدَةَ:
فَقُـلْ لــلـــحَـــوَارِيَّاتِ يَبْـــكِـــينَ غَـــيْرَنـــا،        ولا تَـبْـكِــنـــا إِلاَّ الـــكِـــلابُ الـــنَّـــوابِـــحُ
بكَـــيْنَ إِلـــينـــا خـــفـــيةً أَنْ تُـــبِـــيحَـــهــــا        رِماحُ النَّصَارَى، والسُّيُوفُ الجوارِحُ
جعل أَهل الشأْم نصارى لأَنها تلي الروم وهي بلادها. والحَوارِيَّاتُ من النساء: النَّقِيَّاتُ الأَلوان والجلود لبياضهن، ومن هذا قيل لصاحب الحُوَّارَى:مُحَوَّرٌ؛ وقول العجاج:
بأَعْيُنٍ مُحَوَّراتٍ حُورِ
يعني الأَعين النقيات البياض الشديدات سواد الحَدَقِ.
وفي حديث صفة الجنة: إِن في الجنة لَمُجْتَمَعاً للحُورِ العِينِ.


Hawwary: Bleacher, follower of Prophet Jesus (peace be upon him and his virgin mother)

Hawwary is the bleacher or the launderer who washes the people’s garments and makes them white (or clean) again. In linguistic context those are purified from all defects. Those who help others to purify themselves as well.

Remark 3: Perhaps this explains the Christian tradition of baptism and perhaps the fact that disciples of the Jesus were making a living working the river to wash garments (?).

Hawwary is also mentioned as the Chosen(s) by the prophets i.e. those exclusively preferred by the prophets, being so pure:

The Prophet Mohammad said: Zubair is Hawwary of my nation.

Therefore this word Hur, in another derivative form, applied to Christians and male Muslims, strictly in a spiritual context.

لسان العرب
والتَّحْوِيرُ: التببيض. والحَوارِيُّونَ: القَصَّارُونَ لتبييضهم لأَنهم كانوا قصارين ثم غلب حتى صار كل ناصر وكل حميم حَوارِيّاً. وقال بعضهم:الحَوارِيُّونَ صَفْوَةُ الأَنبياء الذين قد خَلَصُوا لَهُمْ؛ وقال الزجاج: الحواريون خُلْصَانُ الأَنبياء، عليهم السلام، وصفوتهم. قال: والدليل على ذلك قول النبي، صلى الله عليه وسلم: الزُّبَيْرُ ابن عمتي وحَوارِيَّ من أُمَّتِي؛ أَي خاصتي من أَصحابي وناصري. قال: وأَصحاب النبي، صلى الله عليه وسلم، حواريون، وتأْويل الحواريين في اللغة الذين أُخْلِصُوا ونُقُّوا من كل عيب؛ وكذلك الحُواَّرَى من الدقيق سمي به لأَنه يُنَقَّى من لُباب البُرِّ؛ قال: وتأْويله في الناس الذي قد روجع في اختِياره مرة بعد مرة فوجد نَقِيّاً من العيوب. قال: وأَصل التَّحْوِيرِ في اللغة من حارَ يَحُورُ، وهو الرجوع. والتَّحْوِيرُ: الترجيع، قال: فهذا تأْويله، والله أَعلم. ابن سيده: وكلُّ مُبالِغٍ في نُصْرَةِ آخر حوَارِيٌّ، وخص بعضهم به أَنصار الأَنبياء، عليهم السلام، وقوله أَنشده ابن دريد:
بَكَى بِعَيْنِك واكِفُ الـقَـطْـرِ،
إِنما أَراد ابنَ الحَوارِيِّ، يعني الحَوارِيِّ الزُّبَيرَ، وعنى بابنه عَبْدَ اللهِو بْنَ الزبير. وقيل لأَصحاب عيسى، عليه السلام: الحواريون للبياض، لأَنهم كانوا قَصَّارين. والحَوارِيُّ: البَيَّاضُ، وهذا أَصل قوله، صلى الله عليه وسلم، في الزبير: حَوارِيَّ من أُمَّتي، وهذا كان بدأَه لأَنهم كانوا خلصاء عيسى وأَنصاره، وأَصله من التحوير التبييض، وإِنما سموا حواريين لأَنهم كانوا يغسلون الثياب أَي يُحَوِّرُونَها، وهو التبييض؛ ومنه الخُبْزُ الحُوَّارَى؛ ومنه قولهم: امرأَة حَوارِيَّةٌ إذا كانت بيضاء. قال: فلما كان عيسى بن مريم، على نبينا وعليه السلام، نصره هؤلاء الحواريون وكانوا أَنصاره دون الناس قيل لناصر نبيه حَوارِيُّ إذا بالغ في نُصْرَتِه تشبيهاً بأُولئك. والحَوارِيُّونَ:الأَنصار وهم خاصة أَصحابه. وروى شمر أَنه قال: الحَوارِيُّ الناصح وأَصله الشيء الخالص، وكل شيء خَلَصَ لَوْنُه، فهو حَوارِيٌّ. والأَحْوَرِيُّ:الأَبيض الناعم؛ وقول الكميت:

© 2015-2002,  Dara O Shayda

Feynman: Why?




Please listen to carefully to what he says about WHY magnets attract or repel. Apply his language and ideas to WHY Allah does this or doesn’t do that?

Also note that he talks about the answer to WHY changes depending on the level of training or knowledge of the questioner.



Grammar States

Grammar States

Discussion   Join


1.  I’rāb (Auditory Love) & Mu’rab (Auditory Beloved) 
2.  Tertiary States and Phonemes (Sounds)
The Role of Enhanced Breathing Control
Speech Phones are a Replication Code
3.  Haraka (Oral Movement)
         State of Raf’ (Elevation)
State of Jarr (Being Tugged)
State of Nasb (Outer-Boundary)

4.  Mubtada (Beginn ing) & Khabar (Information)
5.  Why were Hamza, Ya, Ta and Nun prefixed to the present/future verbs?
David’s Divine Oboe
The Musical Primate
6.  Why is the past tense verb based upon Haraka (Oral Movement)?
7.  Why are the past tense verbs based upon the Haraka (Oral Movement) of Fat-ha (‘a’ as in ‘cat’)?
8.  Examples:

See Also:
Full Text of Asrar Al-Arabia (Secrets of Arabic) by Al-Anbari 


When a man loves his woman or a father is in love with his child, upon their sorrowful departure the recordings of their voices serve him as acoustic beloveds as though they were fashioned again alive, but this time they are made up of sounds and words, instead of flesh and limbs!

Their sounds echo within his ears, neurologically pulsed within the motor centres of his brain, when suddenly his arms motion with warmth to embrace a long gone beloved, and yet it is an acoustic beloved more loved and yearned for than the first biological one! A beloved made up of waves of air and yet more concrete than the one made from flesh!

Just the same, every member of human-kind saw the Lord of The Multiverse and now infinite time intervals have gone by and we have not seen a trace of That Divine Beauty, but upon hearing the Inflections at the very end of the Divine Words, a Divine Beloved is sculpted from the sounds and words, a beloved more loved than any other we can fathom, present and ready to be loved forever, ceaselessly, and for every member of our kind indiscriminately.

Azizam (My dearest) listen intently to the ‘o’ sound at the of the words Al-HayyO Al-QayyumO [3:2] when an ever-living immovable unwavering Beloved appears, to your right and to your left, and for as long as the ending ‘o’ sounds are echoing in your ears that ever-living is with you uninterruptedly.

And upon your own reciting of these Divine Inflections all that you are evanesces and your Oral Movements, a creature in and of itself, voyages speedily into a far away universe, like unto the waves of air travelling the atmosphere of earth, you that is no longer you will wave through the Divine Atmosphere of Ever-living Ever-hearing, while the muscle and cartilage and bone are left here to wither upon this earth.

1.  I’rāb (Auditory Love) & Mu’rab (Auditory Beloved)

When Moses was chasing after the source of the light in the desert night, the burning bush, he heard sounds that inescapably made him fall in love with someONE out of sight, a maddening feral love that robbed his mind of all speech except the articulation: ‘Let me look at You!’ [7:143] (when in the mountain).

وَلَمَّا جَاءَ مُوسَى لِمِيقَاتِنَا وَكَلَّمَهُ رَبُّهُ قَالَ رَبِّ أَرِنِي أَنْظُرْ إِلَيْكَ

In the language of the Arab ‘Desinential Inflections’ (I’rab) are the sounds at the end of the words, which change according to tense and case. These sounds are:

1.    Prelinguistic
2.    Precognitive

They serve the purpose of making the words become auditory beloveds:

From ‘Secrets of Arabic’,
by Al-Anbari:

“These sounds at the end of the words are called I’rab for they are Verbal Mu’rab (Beloved), i.e. they cause the word to be loved by the listener; as the Arab says, “Woman U’rūb (From I’rab)” if she has become a beloved for her husband. Similarly Allah said: 56:37 ‘Uruban (Beloved (by nature)), i.e. beloveds for their husbands.

عُرُبًا أَتْرَابًا

Therefore what makes a speech become a Mu’rab (Auditory Beloved) for the listener is called I’rab (Auditory Love).”

Azizat (Your Dearest Beloved) added inflections at the end of the Divine Words, so that even if Azizam (you my dearest) did not understand the meanings, you could still hear the sound of the Divine Love and move towards ITs direction, hence the sounds are precognitive. And again Zibāy-e Āsemāni (That Cosmic Beauty) added the inflections so that even the newborn is able to receive ITs love and blessings, hence the sounds are prelinguistic.  And finally when you go to the grave of someone whom you loved so much, s/he hears these inflections as a sent-love from you.

Listen! These inflections are placed there to give you word-less (Prelinguistic) love for a Divine Beloved above and beyond all intellects, hence precognitive loving vis-à-vis prelinguistic phonemes.

أسرار العربية
المؤلف : كمال الدين أبو البركات عبد الرحمن بن أبي سعيد الأنباري
باب الإعراب و البناء
إن قال قائل لم سمي الإعراب إعرابا والبناء بناء قيل أما الإعراب ففيه ثلاثة أوجه:إحدها أن يكون سمي بذلك لأنه يبين المعاني مأخوذ من قولهم أعرب الرجل عن حجته إذا بينها ومنه قوله الثيب يعرب عنها لسانها أي يبين ويوضح قال الشاعر – من الطويل –
( وجدنا لكم في آل حم آية تأولها منا تقي ومعرب ) فلما كان الإعراب يعين المعاني سمي إعرابا.والوجه الثاني أن يكون سمي إعرابا لأنه تغير يلحق أو آخر الكلم من قولهم عربت معدة الفصيل إذا تغيرت فإن قيل العرب في قولهم عربت معدة الفصيل معناه الفساد فكيف يكون الإعراب مأخوذا منه قيل معنى قولك أعربت الكلام أي أزلت عربه وهو فساده وصار هذا كقولك أعجمت الكتاب إذا أزلت عجمته وأشكيت الرجل إذا أزلت شكايته و على هذا حمل بعض المفسرين قوله تعالى ( إن الساعة آتية أكاد أخفيها ) أي أزيل خفاءها وهذه الهمزة تسمى همزة السلب

والوجه الثالث أن يكون سمي إعرابا لأن المعرب للكلام كأنه يتحبب إلى السامع باعرابه من قولهم امرأة عروب إذا كانت متحببه إلى زوجها قال الله تعالى ( عربا أترابا ) أي متحببات إلى أزواجهن فلما كان المعرب للكلام كأنه يتحبب إلى السامع بإعرابه سمي إعرابا.

وأما البناء فهو منقول من هذا البناء المعروف للزومه وثبوته فإن قيل فما حد الإعراب والبناء قيل أما الإعراب فحده اختلاف أواخر الكلم باختلاف العوامل لفظا أو تقديرا وأما البناء فحده لزوم أواخر الكلم بحركة أو سكون.


2.  Tertiary States and Phonemes

There are four states for the nouns and verbs in the language of the Arab:

1.    Raf’: ‘o’ sound, as in ‘or’.
2.    Nasb: ‘a’ sound, as in ‘cat’.
3.    Jarr: ‘i’ sound, as in ‘bit’.
4.    Jazm: Soundless.

Without a thorough understanding of these states all attempts to learn the language of the Arab are obstructed.

Unbeknownst to most, these states carry important quanta of Spiritual Knowledge, without cognizance of which the reading of the Divine Words avails but little.

Note: Only the first three have phonemes associated with them, Jazm is soundless. So we might call these the tertiary states.

3. Haraka (Oral Movement)

Haraka means motion; in the case of the grammar it means the sound-producing movements of the mouth, tongue, throat and other surrounding tissues (upper torso, e.g. lungs).

There are three Haraka (Oral Movement) associated with the language of the Arab:

1.    Fat-ha, this the ‘a’ sound, as in ‘cat’; it is obtained when the mouth is open and the tongue and the lips kept still; just like when the doctor pushes your tongue down and says ‘say Ahhh’ and the only sound you can make is this ‘a’, try to say ‘o’ or ‘i’ you can’t.
2.    Kasra, this is the ‘i’ sound, as in ‘bit’; it is obtained when the mouth is open and the tongue is allowed to move but the lips are still and uncurled.
3.    Dhamma, this is the ‘o’ sound, as in ‘or’; it is obtained when the mouth is open and the tongue is allowed to move and the lips are allowed to move, e.g. curled in an ‘o’ shape.

In terms of the complexity of the motions of the mouth-throat area tissues, there is monotonic increase in the complexity of the tissue movement from #1 to #3:

These seemingly simple motions of the lips and tongue, and seemingly obvious and meaningless sounds, are indeed generated by one of the most marvelous molecular inventions, an add-on in humans that the apes and other primates are missing. The purpose of a complete overhaul of human respiratory system and its underlying neural complexity is exclusively for the sake of  prolonged speech:

The Evolution of Human Speech: The Role of Enhanced Breathing Control
School of Life Sciences, Roehampton Institute London

“Based on previously published analyses, these results
demonstrate that there was an increase in thoracic innervation during
human evolution. Possible explanations for this increase include postural
control for bipedalism, increased difficulty of parturition, respiration for
endurance running, an aquatic phase, and choking avoidance. These can all
be ruled out, either because of their evolutionary timing, or because they are
insufficiently demanding neurologically. The remaining possible functional
cause is increased control of breathing for speech.

The main muscles involved in the fine control of human speech breathing
are the intercostals and a set of abdominal muscles which are all thoracically
. Modifications to quiet breathing are essential for modern human
speech, enabling the production of long phrases on single expirations punctuated
with quick inspirations at meaningful linguistic breaks. Other linguistically
important features affected by variation in subglottal air pressure
include emphasis of particular sound units, and control of pitch and intonation.
Subtle, complex muscle movements, integrated with cognitive factors,
are involved. The vocalizations of nonhuman primates involve markedly less
respiratory control.

Without sophisticated breath control, early hominids would only have been
capable of short, unmodulated utterances, like those of extant nonhuman
primates. Fine respiratory control, a necessary component for fully modern
language, evolved sometime between 1.6 Mya and 100,000 ya.”

Source: Am J Phys Anthropol 109:341–363, 1999.

The following research establishes that the Phones must be encoded with their articulation as opposed to being just sounds our brains are sensitive to. The Phones are then decoded and one of the pieces of information within them is how the motor area in the brain can re-enact the same spoken sound vis-à-vis the oral motions. Take the concept one step further: Indeed these Phones are also encoded with units of spiritual cognizance which allow the listener to articulate i.e. encode spiritual entities within or feel spiritual feelings otherwise unfelt:

Speech phones are a replication code

“Abstract — Our ability to map sound into pronunciation — vocal imitation — is necessary for
vocabulary learning, and so the existence of language. It is also unexplained. Here I show that
speech is imitable due because of the brain’s use of the innate sensitivities of the vertebrate
auditory system for speech motor targets. Their public nature enables speech to transmit
articulation information. These units I suggest closely link with phones, the minimal unit of
speech segmentation. The conjecture that phones function as a replicative code removes five
unexplained anomalies in language science: (i) why nearly eight hundred phones exist but
any language uses only a tiny subset of them (evolutionarily this makes no sense); (ii) why
newborn infants hear phones of all languages; (iii) why animals also hear them; (iv) why the
Wernicke’s and Broca’s areas arose from homologous areas in primates which process
imitation, and why (v) in humans these areas process nonspeech imitation.

Until now, phones have been studied in terms
such as how they transcribe pronunciation, or their
contribution through a ‘motor theory of speech’ to
word identification. I review the literature related
to imitation, and propose instead that phones should
be viewed neurobiologically as the means by which
speech transmits the articulation information used
to map speech into pronunciation.

Speech needs to carry such information otherwise
the brain would find turning overheard words into
vocal movements hard, and possibly impossible. This
is particularly so since vocal imitation imposes tough
information processing constraints.

• First, it requires mapping auditory information
not only into motor movements but movements
which recognizably recreate the original
• Second, this mapping needs to be possible for an
extraordinary variety of potential articulations —
the world’s languages use phones that differ in 13
vocal tract ‘places’ (from the lips to the space
between the vocal cords, the glottis) and do so
through no less than 11 types of movements
(nasals to lateral clicks).
• Third, on top of this variety of phones potentially
needing to be imitated, infants (who must imitate
to learn new vocabulary) face the problem that
they must copy movements made by adults with
very different shaped and sized vocal apparatuses.”

Source: Medical Hypotheses (1998) 50, 167-173
© Harcourt Brace & Co. Ltd 1998

State of Raf’ (Elevation)

Translated from ‘Lisanul Arab’,
by Ibn Manzour Afriqi:


“One of the Divine Names of Allah: Al-Rāfi’ who elevates the believers with happiness and elevates ITs Aulia (Close Friends) with Qurb (Divine Nearness):

58:11 Allah will rise up, to ranks, those of you who believe and who have been granted (Divine) Knowledge

Raf’ is the opposite of fixing or attaching something. It is also the opposite of Khafdh (Lowering),  for all applications of the concepts of lowering or lessening.

Raf’ in ‘I’rab (Science of Inflection) is the Dhamma (‘o’ sound) appended to nouns and verbs. It differs with (opposes) the grammatical states Jarr (Suffix ‘i’ sound, Kasra) and Nasb (Suffix ‘a’ sound, Fat-ha); Mubtada’ (The Beginning) elevates the Khabar (Information) and vice versa, for they help with each other’s elevation.”

Dara: Accumulation of Ilm (Divine Knowledge) or access to inmost inert concealed Ma’refa (Unlearned Knowledge) or prehension of Tauhid (Divine Oneness) glides the servant upwards towards Allah, sometimes with the feeling of felicity and sometimes with the feeling of closeness. The proper way to say this is: Allah makes them glide upwards. The more the servant is lowly, i.e. tied to daily life and personal gains and desires, the more the gliding is hampered.

Note: States of Jarr and Nasb (see below) are all about connections and boundaries while the state of Raf’ is about breaking all connections and trespassing beyond all boundaries.

لسان العرب  ابن منظور
في أَسْماءالله تعالى الرافِعُ: هو الذي يَرْفَعُ المؤْمن بالإِسعاد وأَولياءَه بالتقْرِيب. والرَّفْعُ: ضدّ الوَضْع، رَفَعْته فارْتَفَع فهو نَقيض الخَفْض في كل شيء، رَفَعه يَرْفَعُه رَفْعاً ورَفُع هو رَفاعة وارْتَفَع. والمِرْفَع: ما رُفِع به. وقوله تعالى في صفة القيامة: خافِضةٍ رافِعة؛ قال الزجاج: المعنى أَنها تَخْفِض أَهل المعاصي وتَرْفَع أَهل الطاعة.
والرَّفْعُ في الإِعراب: كالضمّ في البِناء وهو من أَوضاع النحويين، والرَّفعُ في العربية: خلاف الجر والنصب، والمُبْتَدأُ مُرافِع للخبر لأَنَّ كل واحد منهما يَرْفَع صاحبه.

Dara:  It seems that the icon for an elevator is most suited to depict the state of Raf’ (Elevation). Mind you the elevation has gradations and each gradation is a universe all to itself, like the floor-levels of a building, each a space all to itself.

Al-Rahman-u: Dhamma (‘o’ sound at the end of the Rahman) places the Divine Name into the state of Raf’ (Elevation). We can view the concept of elevation in a myriad of ways: Rahman requires complexity of knowledge(s) and cognizance(s) to be attained just as a lofty entity requires gliding if it is to be reached; all else in creation (as the Surah indicates) are mere substances making up the very elevation and gliding necessary to reach Rahman; all we are and all we see around us are nothing but mere steps of elevations for a terrific cosmic glide towards the Rahman; The ‘o’ phoneme at the end of the Rahman  is indicative of the immense quantities of complexity required to reach to this lofty state of the Divine Presence; the lips are to be curled, single expiration is passed from the Fat-ha (‘a’ sound as in ‘cat’) of Al- (the) to the final Dhamma (‘o’ sound) in order to articulate Al-Rahman-u, from the gut muscles to the entire thoracic region via the larynx and pharynx up to the deepest of our cognitive faculties are synchronized and orchestrated to produced the prolonged sound of ‘o’ at the end of the Rahman; now imagine if you continued to expirate the ending ‘o’ sound, that symbolizes the complexities required to form the continuum around us (and within us), from time to space to matter to all that we can observe and the unobservable(s), for all entities to continue being or transporting from one state to another, a Divinely exotic energy-form Mumāsika (from Yumsikuhunna in 67:19) is required that fuels the continuity and all that which is continuous, the very source of this exotic energy-form is the ‘o’ sounding phoneme:

67:19 Do they not observe the bird (single, genus of all flying animals) above them, spreading their wings and folding them in? None can uphold them (plural, all birds) (to continue to fly for millions of years, bird after bird) except Al-Rahman-u

أَوَلَمْ يَرَوْا إِلَى الطَّيْرِ فَوْقَهُمْ صَافَّاتٍ وَيَقْبِضْنَ مَا يُمْسِكُهُنَّ إِلَّا الرَّحْمَنُ

This Dhamma (‘o’ sound) is a code that is transported from the Malakut (Spiritual Realm) to this world; we hear this code as the sound ‘o’, but with this code is also carried the decoding entities that, once the human being is able to apply them, the actual knowledge behind the phoneme ‘o’ is decoded/uncovered and marvellous new insights from the other universe is rendered available in this universe in order that the human heart and mind may glide aloft and upwards.

The latter makes each human being a Divine Translator who is able to take Spiritual Knowledge and code/encode them into sounds and letters of alphabets, drawings, thoughts and emotions, software/hardware calculations and theories and so on:

2:33. (Allah) said: O Adam inform them (the angels, with information about themselves, that even they did not know!)

قَالَ يَا آَدَمُ أَنْبِئْهُمْ

All pronouns are in the state of Raf’ i.e. elevated, since they require other entities to be around endowed with cognitive faculties to form societies capable of understanding the concept of personal pronouns e.g. I, you, we, they, or he, and the latter (hu, he) introduces complexity. In 112:1 Hu/Huwa (IT, He, third person personal pronoun) is thus elevated (by virtue of it’s dhamma, ‘o’ sound) and it is also a Mubtada’ (see below). Mubtada means a (head) part of the sentence, usually the beginning, about which the rest of the sentence gives information or expresses concepts.  Similarly, in English grammar there is ‘subject’ and ‘predicate’; mubtada’ is subject, and khabar is the predicate, the information.  Here, to represent mubtada’ (beginning, subject) we have given the ideogram of a camcorder, i.e. mubtada (beginning) it is like a video source, into which the rest of the sentence feeds its Khabar (information, predicate), or in the sense that the rest of the sentence is the broadcast of the video!

In the case of 112:1 (Qul Huwa Allahu Ahad, Say IT/He is Allah, the One), the word Huwa (IT, He) is a source but has no broadcasting, in contrast to the word Allah which has information about Huwa (IT), broadcast in the form of Ahad (being one) and Samad (being the master of all) i.e. this information is broadcast optical-like Nur (Divine Light). This lack of broadcast gives this source Huwa (Mubtada’) a unique type: knowledge and cognizance of the Hu is something very special – not a public affair, but a unique gnosis only for the very gifted, who are close to Allah.

Ibn Arabi
Kitab (Book) of Alif

“For that matter, the Jews asked Muhammad, peace be upon him: Tell us the Nasab (Origin) of your Lord, therefore Allah revealed: Say Huwa (is) Allah Ahad (One) 112:1” they did not say “describe” or “characterize” indeed they asked for the Nasab (Origin).”

Therefore the ideograms above that show the camera sources and broadcasters, as a collective, are describing a Nasab (Origination) rather than providing an explanation.

رسائل ابن عربي
كتاب الألف
فقال اليهود لمحمد عليه السلام  انسب لنا ربك فأنزل الله تعالى: قل هو الله أحد
فجاء بالنسب و لم يقولوا صف و لا انعت


State of Jarr (Being Tugged)

Jaarr & Majrur


The messenger ‘of’ Allah or ‘in’ the name of Allah or ‘by’ Allah or ‘towards’ Allah, are possible and correct sentences because Allah has allowed for an entity which we recognize in lingual and geometrical renditions, to be in relationship to Allah!  Similarly, ‘of’ in a vitiated form, e.g.“hat ‘of’ Dara”, allows for such relationships and associations between humans and other entities.

State of Nasb (Outer-Boundary)


The above concepts of boundaries and the balloon representation have been adopted from the below, the ancient writings of the Arab grammarians:

From Lisanul Arab
by Ibn Manzour Afriqi:

“Nasb is placing something some place and raising it (e.g. flag pole vertically).
Nasb is also the outer-limit or outer-boundary.
Stones placed on tops of cliffs or hills to guide by them.
Nasb of Haram, the outer-perimeter of the Haram.
Stones placed around the edge of a pool.
Visual Nasb: Something erected so it is not hidden from the viewer.”

لسان العرب  ابن منظور
والنَّصْبُ: وَضْعُ الشيءِ ورَفْعُه، نَصَبه يَنْصِبُه نَصْباً،
والنَّصِيبةُ والنُّصُبُ: كلُّ ما نُصِبَ، فجُعِلَ عَلَماً
والنَّصْبُ والنُّصُبُ: العَلَم المَنْصُوب. وفي التنزيل العزيز: كأَنهم إِلى نَصْبٍ يُوفِضُونَ؛ قرئ بهما جميعاً، وقيل: النَّصْبُ الغاية، والأَول أَصحّ. قال أَبو إِسحق: مَن قرأَ إِلى نَصْبٍ، فمعناه إِلى عَلَمٍ مَنْصُوبٍ يَسْتَبِقُون إِليه؛
والتَّناصِيبُ: الأَعْلام، وهي الأَناصِيبُ، حجارةٌ تُنْصَبُ على رؤوس القُورِ، يُسْتَدَلُّ بها؛ وقول الشاعر: وَجَبَتْ له أُذُنٌ، يُراقِبُ سَمْعَهـا  بَصَرٌ، كناصِبةِ الشُّجاعِ المُرْصَدِ
يريد: كعينه التي يَنْصِبُها للنظر.
ابن سيده: والأَنْصابُ حجارة كانت حول الكعبة، تُنْصَبُ فيُهَلُّ عليها، ويُذْبَحُ لغير اللّه تعالى.
وأَنْصابُ الحرم: حُدوده.
والنُّصْبةُ: السَّارِية.
والنَّصائِبُ: حجارة تُنْصَبُ حَولَ الحَوض، ويُسَدُّ ما بينها من الخَصاص بالمَدَرة المعجونة، واحدتها نَصِيبةٌ؛ وكلُّه من ذلك.
وقال الليث: النَّصْبُ رَفْعُك شيئاً تَنْصِبُه قائماً مُنْتَصِباً، والكلمةُ المَنْصوبةُ يُرْفَعُ صَوْتُها إِلى الغار الأَعْلى، وكلُّ شيءٍ انْتَصَبَ بشيءٍ فقد نَصَبَهُ. الجوهري: النَّصْبُ مصدر نَصَبْتُ الشيءَ إذا أَقَمته.
والنَّصْبُ: إِقامةُ الشيءِ ورَفْعُه؛ وقوله: أَزَلُّ إِنْ قِيدَ، وإِنْ قامَ نَصَبْ
هو من ذلك، أَي إِن قام رأَيتَه مُشْرِفَ الرأْس والعُنُق.
قال ثعلب: لا يكون النَّصْبُ إِلا بالقيام.
وقال مرة: هو نُصْبُ عَيْني، هذا في الشيءِ القائم الذي لا يَخْفى عليَّ، وإِن كان مُلْقىً؛ يعني بالقائم، في هذه الأَخيرة: الشيءَ الظاهرَ. القتيبي: جَعَلْتُه نُصْبَ عيني، بالضم، ولا تقل نَصْبَ عيني.


4.  Mubtada’ (Beginning) & Khabar (Information)

Khabar (News, Information): This is usually a noun or a phrase issuing some useful information about the Mubtada’ (Beginning). In Arabic grammar, the Khabar can be omitted for a variety of purposes; the Mubtada’ (Beginning) is then left without any explanation.


1.    “Allah is our Lord”: ‘Allah’ is Mubtada’ (Beginning) and ‘our Lord’ is Khabar (News, Information).
2.    “And it is better for you that you fast” [2:184]: ‘that you fast’ is Mubtada’ (Beginning) while ‘it is better for you’ is Khabar (News, Information).

Mubtada’ primary is rendered as a blue camera, secondary a grey camera.
Khabar primary is rendered as a blue broadcast antenna, secondary a grey one.

From ‘Secrets of Arabic’,
by Al-Anbari:

“Mubtada’ is any word that has been unaffected by any grammatical operatives that could have operated on it, either by an explicit or implicit operator. Kana (‘is’ or ‘was’) and its siblings are examples of explicit operators, also Inna (Indeed, whereas, behold, verily) and its siblings and Zanan-tu (I suspected) and its siblings. Implicit operators are similar but they are omitted e.g. ‘When the sky (shall become (Yakuna)) sundered [84:1]’.

Or Mubtada’ is any word that is unaffected by any semantic operators e.g. Ha-Za (This) which is a Mubtada’ or the occurrence of a present/future verb in place of a noun, e.g. I passed by a man (who) is writing,  i.e. present continuous verb ‘is writing’ is in place of the noun ‘writer’. “

Dara: To summarize the above: Mubtada’ is the beginning of a sentence or a phrase which has no grammatical operative acting on it, hence the beginning, e.g. a doer is Mubtada’ since it does things that start the sentences or a pronoun. Mubtada’ is usually a noun about which information is transmitted within the rest of the Arabic sentence. It is always in Raf’ (Nominative) state. The Mubtada’can also be a phrase. For example, “Allah is our Lord”: ‘Allah’ is Mubtada’ (Beginning).

أسرار العربية
المؤلف : كمال الدين أبو البركات عبد الرحمن بن أبي سعيد الأنباري
باب المبتدأ
إن قال قائل ما المبتدأ قيل كل اسم عريته من العوامل اللفظية لفظا او تقديرا فقولنا اللفظية احترازا لأن العوامل تنقسم إلى قسمين إلى عامل لفظي و إلى عامل معنوي:
فأما ا للفظي فنحو كان وأخواتها وإن وأخواتها وظننت وأخواتها وقولنا تقديرا احترازا من تقدير الفعل في نحو قوله تعالى ( إذا السماء انشقت ) وما أشبه ذلك وأما المعنوي فلم يأت إلا في موضعين عند سيبويه وأكثر البصريين هذا أحدهما وهو الابتداء والثاني وقوع الفعل المضارع موقع الاسم في نحو مررت برجل يكتب فارتفع يكتب لوقوعه موقع كاتب

و أضاف أبو الحسن الأخفش إليهما موضعا ثالثا وهو عامل الصفة فذهب إلى أن الاسم يرتفع لكونه صفة لمرفوع وينتصب لكونه صفة لمنصوب وينجر لكونه صفة لمجرور وكونه صفة في هذه الأحوال معنى يعرف بالقلب ليس للفظ فيه حظ وسيبويه وأكثر البصريين يذهبون إلى أن العامل في الصفة هو العامل في الموصوف ولهذا موضع نذكره فيه إن شاء الله تعالى

From ‘Secrets of Arabic’
by Al-Anbari:“Mubtada’ is elevated (Marfu’) or in the state of Raf’ (Elevation) because it is above all the grammatical operators of a sentence! Others said it is elevated since the rest of the sentence informs about it (So it is the entity with most information about it). Some others said that both Mubtada’ and Khabar elevate each other since they both give information about the other. “

فإن قيل بماذا يرتفع الاسم المبتدأ قيل اختلف النحويون في ذلك فذهب سيبويه ومن تابعه من البصريين إلى أنه يرتفع بتعريه من العوامل اللفظية وذهب بعض البصريين إلى أنه يرتفع بما في النفس من معنى الإخبار عنه وقد ضعفه بعض النحويين وقال لو كان الأمر كما زعم لوجب ألا ينتصب إذا دخل عليه عامل النصب لأن دخوله عليه لم يغير معنى الإخبار عنه ولوجب ألا يدخل عليه مع بقائه فلما جاز ذلك دل على فساد ما ذهب إليه وأما الكوفيون فذهبوا إلى أنه يرتفع بالخبر وزعموا أنهما يترافعان وأن كل واحد منهما يرفع الآخر وقد بينا فساده في مسائل الخلاف بين البصريين والكوفيين

فإن قيل فلم جعلتم التعري عاملا وهو عبارة عن عدم العوامل قيل لأن العوامل اللفظية ليست مؤثرة في المعمول حقيقة وإنما هي أمارات

وعلامات فالعلامة تكون بعدم شيء كما تكون بوجود شيء ألا ترى أنه لو كان معك ثوبان و أردت أن تميز أحدهما عن الآخر لكنت تصبغ أحدهما مثلا وتترك صبغ الآخر فيكون عدم الصبغ في أحدهما كصبغ الآخر فتبين بهذا أن العلامة تكون بعدم شيء كما تكون بوجود شيء وإذا ثبت هذا جاز أن يكون التعري من العوامل اللفظية عاملا

From ‘Secrets of Arabic’
by Al-Anbari:“There are three reasons that the Mubtada’ is exclusively in the state of Raf’ (Elevation):1.    Mubtada’ is the strongest (most important) element in the sentence; that is, the rest of the sentence is about it (or it is the most complex element in the sentence since the rest of the sentence explains it) and therefore the most complex Haraka (Motion) of the mouth tissues is assigned to Mubtada’ and that is the ‘o’ sound or the state of Raf’ (Elevation).
2.    Mutada’ is the beginning of the sentence, so is the elevation the beginning of something (e.g. head is the beginning of a standing human being), therefore Mubtada’ is given the state of Raf’ (Elevation).
3.    The rest of the sentence informs about the Mubtada’, just like the sentence that informs about the doer and since the doer is in the state of Raf’ (Elevation) then Mubtada’ is in the same state as well. ”

فإن قيل فلم خص المبتدأ بالرفع دون غيره قيل لثلاثة أوجه

أحدها أن المبتدأ وقع في أقوى أحواله وهو الابتداء فأعطي أقوى الحركات وهو الرفع

والوجه الثاني أن المبتدأ أول والرفع أول فأعطي الأول الأول.

والوجه الثالث أن المبتدأ مخبر عنه كما أن الفاعل مخبر عنه والفاعل مرفوع فكذلك ما أشبهه فإن قيل لماذا لا يكون المبتدأ في الأمر العام إلا معرفة قيل لأن المبتدأ مخبر عنه و الإخبار عمن لا يعرف لا فائدة فيه فإن قيل فهل يجوز تقديم خبر المبتدأ عليه نحو قائم زيد قيل اختلف النحويون في ذلك فذهب البصريون إلى أنه جائر وذهب الكوفيون إلى أنه غير جائر وأنه إذا تقدم عليه الخبر يرتفع به ارتفاع الفاعل بفعله وقالوا لو جوزنا تقديم خبر المبتدأ عليه لأدى ذلك إلى تقديم ضمير الاسم على ظاهره وذلك لا يجوز وهذا الذي ذهبوا إليه فاسد وذلك لأن اسم الفاعل اضعف من الفعل في العمل لأنه فرع عليه فلا يعمل حتى يعتمد ولم يوجد ههنا فوجب ألا يعمل وقولهم أن هذا يؤدي إلى تقديم ضمير الاسم على ظاهره فاسد أيضا لأنه وان كان مقدما لفظا إلا أنه مؤخر تقديرا وإذا كان مقدما في اللفظ مؤخرا في التقدير كان تقديمه جائزا قال الله تعالى ( فأوجس في نفسه خيفة موسى ) فالهاء في نفسه ضمير موسى وان كان في اللفظ مقدما على موسى إلا أنه لما كان موسى مقدما في التقدير والضمير في تقدير التأخير كان ذلك جائزا فكذلك ههنا والذي يدل على جواز ذلك وقوع الإجماع على جواز ضرب غلامه زيد وهذا بيّن.

وكذلك اختلفوا في الظرف إذا كان مقدما على المبتدأ نحو عندك زيد فذهب البصريون إلى أنه في موضع الخبر كما لو كان متأخرا وذهب الكوفيون إلى أن المبتدأ يرتفع بالظرف ويخرج عن كونه مبتدأ و وافقهم على ذلك أبو الحسن الأخفش في أحد قوليه وفي هذه المسالة كلام طويل بيناه في المسائل الخلافية لا يليق ذكره بهذا المختصر.

From ‘Secrets of Arabic’,
by Al-Anbari“Khabar (Information, News) for the Mubtada’ (Beginning) is of two sorts:1.    Single word: Either it is a noun that is not an attribute, e.g. Zaid ,or it is an attribute. In ‘Zaid is your brother and Amru is your son’ Zaid is the Mubtada’ therefore ‘your brother’ is its Khabar, again Amru is Mubtada’ and ‘your son’ is Khabar. In ‘Zaid is an attacker’ or ‘Amru is nice’, both attributes ‘attacker’ and ‘nice’ are Khabar.
2.    Phrase: Either it is a sentence starting with a noun e.g. ‘Zaid’s father is departed’ both ‘Zaid’ is primary Mubtada’ and ‘(his) father’ the secondary Mubtada’ and therefore ‘departed’ is the Khabar. Or a sentence that starts with a verb e.g. ‘Left Zaid’s father and Amru’. (Dara: “Zaid’s father and Amru” give Khabar (Information) about the mubtada’ verb ‘to leave’)“

أسرار العربية
المؤلف : كمال الدين أبو البركات عبد الرحمن بن أبي سعيد الأنباري
باب خبر المبتدأ
إن قال قائل على كم ضربا ينقسم خبر المبتدأ قيل على ضربين مفرد و جملة
فإن قيل على كم ضربا ! ينقسم المفرد قيل على ضربين أحدهما أن يكون اسما غير صفة والآخر أن يكون صفة
أما الاسم غير الصفة فنحو زيد أخوك وعمرو غلامك فزيد مبتدأ و أخوك خبره وكذلك عمرو مبتدأ وغلامك خبره وليس في شيء من هذا النحوا ضمير يرجع إلى المبتدأ عند البصريين وذهب الكوفيون إلى أن فيه ضميرا يرجع إلى المبتدأ وبه قال علي بن عيسى الرماني من البصريين والأول هو الصحيح لأن هذه أسماء محضة والأسماء المحضة لا تتضمن الضمائر
وأما ما كان صفة فنحو زيد ضارب وعمرو حسن وما أشبه ذلك ولا خلاف بين النحويين في أن هذا النحو يتحمل ضميرا يرجع إلى المبتدأ لأنه يتنزل منزلة الفعل ويتضمن معناه.

فإن قيل على كم ضربا تنقسم الجملة قيل على ضربين جملة اسمية وجملة فعلية فأما الجملة الاسمية فما كان الجزء الأول منها اسما وذلك نحو زيد أبوه منطلق فزيد مبتدأ أول و أبوه مبتدأ ثان ومنطلق خبر عن المبتدأ الثاني والمبتدأ الثاني وخبره خبر عن المبتدأ الأول وأما الجملة الفعلية فما كان الجزء الأول منها فعلا وذلك نحو زيد ذهب أبوه و عمرو إن تكرمه يكرمك وما أشبه ذلك أما الظرف وحرف الجر فاختلف النحويون فيهما فذهب سيبويه وجماعة من النحويين إلى أنهما يعدان من الجمل لأنهما يقدر معهما الفعل فإذا قال زيد عندك وعمرو في الدار كان التقدير زيد استقر عندك وعمرو استقر في الدار.


5.  Why were Hamza, Ya, Ta and Nun prefixed to the present/future verbs?

From ‘Secrets of Arabic’
by Al-Anbari:

“Originally these prefixes were the three Madd (Prolonging, Continuation) letters i.e. Waw, Ya and Alif”.

Dara: A Madd (Prolonging, Continuation) letter needs to be added to the beginning of a verb to make it render a prolonged or continuous action from present into future. Therefore the letters that had the Phonemes i.e. recognized minimal units of sounds, which could be uttered by the mouth region and maintain an indefinite prolonged pronunciation/exhalation were chosen for this task to represent or TAG continuity and prolongation from present into future. These prolong-able prefixed phonemes are:

1.    Waw:  (English equivalent of the English ‘double-u’ (w); It gives prolongation to the dhamma sound ‘o’.  When one Waw follows another immediately they together sound as ‘oo’ in ‘fool’. Therefore you can indefinitely prolong, via exhalation, the phoneme  ‘oooooooooooooooooooo…’
2.    Ya: (English equivalent is ‘y’, a prolongation of the sound ‘i’, kasrah phoneme)  When one Ya follows another Ya immediately they together sound as ‘ee’ in ‘eel’. Therefore you can indefinitely prolong, via exhalation, the phoneme: ‘eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee…’
3.    Alif: When one Alif follows another Alif immediately they together sound as ‘a’ in ‘ah!’. Therefore you can indefinitely prolong, via exhalation, the phoneme: ‘aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa…’

أسرار العربية
المؤلف : كمال الدين أبو البركات عبد الرحمن بن أبي سعيد الأنباري
باب المعرب و المبني
إن قال قائل ما المعرب والمبني قيل أما المعرب فهو ما تغير آخره بتغير العامل فيه لفظا أو تقديرا وهو على ضربين اسم متمكن وفعل مضارع فالاسم المتمكن ما لم يشابه الحرف ولم يتضمن معناه
والفعل المضارع ما كانت في أوله إحدى الزوائد الأربع و هي الهمزة والنون والتاء و ا لياء فإن قيل لم زيدت هذه الأحرف دون غيرها قيل لأن الأصل أن تزاد حروف المد واللين وهي الواو والياء والألف

Dara:  Human being is the medium for Divine Translation (decoding); he translates/decodes the Divine Knowledge and Information from the Malakut (Realm of Spirits) to the Mulk (Corporeal Realm) and Malakut (Realm of Spirits), whether he wills or not, consciously or subconsciously, alive or unliving, pious or evil; an extraordinary Divine Instrumentation for the sole purpose of transference of Divine Knowledge from the lit regions of Wujud (Being-ness) to the unlit darkling regions of both Being and Non-Being (‘Adam); and to this end his thoracic instrumentation genomically modified/perfected in order for him to utter prolonged phonemes, and to switch between 800+ such phonetic units, willingly or unwillingly, to acoustically articulate the architecture of flow of potentialities and uncertainties within the continuum of time vs. the indivisible incurable actualities of Qidam (Realm of all actualities free of probabilities); like unto a song-bird singing-flying through the atmosphere of Hudhur (Divine Presence), distinguished from the rest of the creation, performing ceaselessly for the audience of all that is and for all that was and for all that will be, an incessant song uncovering (Kashf) the Divine Architecture of the passage of time. His ability to pronounce ‘ooooo’ and at the same breath (without the need to inhale) switching to ‘eeeeeeee’ or ‘aaaaaaaaaaaa’ are unique to his thoracic anatomy and genetics, a Divine Translator equipped with Divine Phonetics as the Song Bird of Eden who decodes the thoracic-based sounds into the immovable truth about the time and the Owner of Time. From his lips, nasals, throat and thoracic regions expirates sounds that can give life to the unliving, give love to the unloving, and traverse unnumbered universes, and all that through a few grams of skin, muscle, bone and cartilage; a testament to the ubiquitous greatness of Master of Time Hu generously shared with human beings the cognizance of potentialities and actualities and the benevolent passage of time:2:37. Then received Adam from his Lord words , and his Lord Turned towards him; for Hu/He is Oft-Returning, Most Merciful.فَتَلَقَّى آَدَمُ مِنْ رَبِّهِ كَلِمَاتٍ فَتَابَ عَلَيْهِ إِنَّهُ هُوَ التَّوَّابُ الرَّحِيمُ )

Azizam (My Dearest) those ‘words’ were partly the genomic modification (new nucleotide sequences added) to his thoracic anatomy and nervous system to empower him to yearn and sob, and to hope and laugh in a verbose manner behind the reach of the highest ranking angel, with tiny expenditure of energy for minute oral motions and silent expirations of his lungs and imperceptible movements of thoracic region of his torso. And this thoracic modification was necessary for his Lord to turn to him to hear his sobs and to listen to the articulate moan of his yearning, while he sat or while he walked or while he slept; for Adam ran through the gardens of Eden broken-hearted and other than panting and screaming had no other faculties of communication to ask his Lord to hear him to forgive him!

And after the endowment of such Divine Genomic Gift, he had to be transported to a lower realm of existence for Adam to struggle to evanesce (away from imperfections) upon this ever-evanescing spiritual habitat gushing with the waters of Ma’refa (Divine Gnosis), the planet Earth:

2:38. We said: “Get you down (to become perfect) all from here; and if, as is sure, there comes to you Guidance from Me (in verbal acoustic/syntax form), whosoever follows My guidance, on them shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve (like someone loved and valued by his powerful and protecting Beloved).

قُلْنَا اهْبِطُوا مِنْهَا جَمِيعًا فَإِمَّا يَأْتِيَنَّكُمْ مِنِّي هُدًى فَمَنْ تَبِعَ هُدَايَ فَلَا خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ )

55:26 All that is on her (earth) will evanesce   (man [who] used to indicate the living who are endowed with intelligence)

كُلُّ مَنْ عَلَيْهَا فَانٍ

For the fear and sorrow did not leave Adam and his wife in gardens of Eden, even though they saw all that no eye had ever seen, but the bitter evanescence of this Earth was the sure medicine the Lord of Multiverse prescribed for him and his soulmate and all off-spring, to die once more but to leave the imperfections upon this earth, so Allah will char their vitiations to ashes upon the cosmic gales of amnesia:

18:8 And verily what is on her (earth) we shall make but as dust and dry soil (ma [what] used either to indicate both the living and the unliving, or just the unliving vitiations)

وَإِنَّا لَجَاعِلُونَ مَا عَلَيْهَا صَعِيدًا جُرُزًا

David’s Divine Oboe

“O Abu Musa, for sure you are given a wind-instrument (Oboe like) from the many wind-instruments of family of David”, said the Prophet.

Prophet, peace be upon him, did mention and use the concept of wind-instrument within the context of the reciting the Divine Words i.e. how a human being voyages from a mammal to a Divine Oboe by articulating few phonemes. Moreover the Prophet informed us that these Divine Wind-Instruments within us are indeed from the heritage of the Prophetic family of David.

See also Rumi’s Reed-Flute:

زيادة الجامع الصغير، والدرر المنتثرة، الإصدار 2.05 – للإمام السيوطي
كتاب “زيادة الجامع الصغير”، للسيوطي >> حرف الياء
4066- يا أبا موسى لقد أوتيت مزمارا من مزامير آل داود.
(خ ت) عن أبي موسى.
زيادة الجامع الصغير، والدرر المنتثرة، الإصدار 2.05 – للإمام السيوطي
كتاب “زيادة الجامع الصغير”، للسيوطي >> حرف اللام
2537- لو رأيتني وأنا أستمع قراءتك البارحة لقد أوتيت مزمارا من مزامير آل داود.
(م) عن أبي موسى.أساس البلاغة  الزمخشري
والزمار يزمر في المزمار: ينفخ فيه.
ويقال للحسن الصوت: لقد أوتي من مزامير آل داود، وهو جمع مزمار، كأن في حلقه مزامير، لطيب صوته، أو جمع مزمار، كأنّ في حلقه مزامير، لطيب صوته، أو جمع مزمور من مزمورات داود عليه السلام.

Mario Vaneechoutte
Department of Clinical Chemistry, Microbiology & Immunology,
Blok A, University Hospital, B 9000 Ghent, Belgium

John R. Skoyles
The evolution of intelligence:

4.2. The musical primate
4.2.1. Humans have unique adaptations for singing.

“The idea that the origin of speech lies in our ability to sing can be traced back to at least Jean Jacques Rousseau, in the seventeenth century. It was suggested by the famous linguist Wilhelm von Humboldt in the nineteenth century and by Otto Jespersen early in this one. However, this approach to language has been ignored in more modern times. Indicative is that the word `music’ lacks in the index of the recent books of Pinker and Deacon. In recent times, music has received serious attention by some linguists, but this was done within the Chomskyan paradigm and did not address the origin of language.

Just like song birds possess highly sophisticated syringes, there are very characteristic morphological changes of the human glottis and larynx, unequalled in any mammalian species. Aitchison remarks: “Our language has more in common with the singing and calling of birds, than with the vocal signals of apes.”

The resemblance to bird song was noticed already by Charles Darwin:

“(Language) is certainly not a true instinct, for every language has to be learnt. It differs, however, widely from all ordinary arts, for man has an instinctive tendency to speak, as we see in the babble of our young children; whilst no child has an instinctive tendency to brew, bake, or write. … The sounds uttered by birds offer in several respects the nearest analogy to language, for all the members of the same species utter the same instinctive cries expressive of their emotions; and all the kinds which sing, exert their power instinctively; but the actual song, and even the call-notes, are learnt from their parents or foster-parents. These sounds, …, are no more innate then language is in man.”

Provine has shown that a unique overlooked feature of human speech is our ability to integrate respiration and vocalisation. We, as humans, breath in a way unique among the primates – since only we can neurally modulate sequences of tonal vocalisations upon our expirations. Other primates can vocalise but they are limited to only one vocalization per expiration. For example, both humans and chimpanzees laugh: however, chimpanzees do so by an `ah’, `ah’, `ah’ sequence of repeated inspirations and expirations. In contrast, we do a modulating `ha, ha, ha, ..’ or `ho, ho, ho ..’ upon a single out-breath – this modulation often going on continuous for 16 laughter syllables. Moveover, we can subtly tune our series of vocalisations upon a single continuous out-breath. Only amongst birds – not other primates – are there species that possess comparable respiratory-control ability. This underlies the curious fact that while some birds can imitate human speech, the much more closely related chimpanzee or any mammal cannot.

The neural control that allows song was, we suggest, a profound revolution: the `one breath one-vocalisation’ rule stops chimpanzees not only from laughing like humans but also from being able to control the expiration needed to speak. This, as Provine notes, is the reason why attempts to teach spoken language to chimpanzees have failed in spite of them being able to learn sign and token-based languages and even to understand spoken speech.

Neural control of respiration allows many more kinds of vocalizations: over 700 vowel, diphthongs and consonantal phones were found in a sample based upon only one-twentieth of all the world’s languages. Moreover, such control allows the concatenation of very complex sequences. Thus, vocalisations upon a single out-breath combine into words, and these in turn combine into clauses, phrases and sentences. Neural control also allows modulations to be superimposed upon these vocalisations, such as intonation (linguistic, pragmatic and emotional), and this can be upon a wide variety of speech types like whisper, song, chant, scream, motherese, `Donald-Duck speech’ and ventriloquism.”

From ‘Secrets of Arabic’
by Al-Anbari:

“But Alif has no sound in and of itself, unless it is after itself or another letter or unless it is given some Haraka (Oral Movement), therefore Hamza is used in its place. (Dara: Hamza is a soundless construct that abruptly starts with a little ‘eh’, a soundless exhalation, sharply after another phoneme. Or another phoneme ends sharply in such a soundless manner) Both Alif and Hamza are free flowing air from the throat so they are very close to each other and thus Hamza is a properly chosen replacement for Alif’s lack of sound. “

Dara: Hamza is used in ‘Af’ulu (I do) and the past tense ‘Uf’alu (Done to me). These are the sharp exhalation sounds made in the beginnings of these two verbs. Mind you it is also the beginning of ‘Ana (I)! These sharp starting sounds indicate a chasm, i.e. sudden sundering from the rest of the universe, meaning the self-awareness of ‘I am other than the rest of the universe’, a form of tearing away the human from the nexus of all else, thus the sharp starting exhalation phoneme renders this partition.

إلا أن الألف لما لم يمكن زيادتها أولا لأن الألف لا تكون إلا ساكنة والابتداء بالساكن محال أبدلوا منها الهمزة لقرب مخرجيهما لأنهما هوائيان يخرجان من أقصى الحلق

From ‘Secrets of Arabic’
by Al-Anbari:“Similarly Waw is also replaced by Ta; since prefixing of Waw to words is not a part of the speech of the Arab and if its addition is necessary to the beginning of a word then it is replaced by Ta. Haven’t you heard the Arab say Turāth (Inheritance) in place of Wurāth, Tujāh (In front of) in place of Wujāh, Tukhma (Indigestible) in place of Wuhma or Tuhma (Accusation) in place of Wuhma!”Dara: Ta is used in the beginning of Taf’ulu (You do) Taf’ulāni (You two do) Taf’ulūna (You all do) Taf’ulaina (You female do) Taf’ulāni (You two females do) Taf’ulna (You all females do) and finally Taf’ulu (she female does). Note that both ‘you do’ and ‘she does’, in singular form, are the same verb Taf’ulu, i.e. these verbs were used when Adam and Eve were in presence of Allah; Eve being a Divine Secret generated from deep within Adam, ‘she does something’ was no different ‘you do something’ for she was from him. This intimacy is noteworthy. Also ‘you two males do’ and ‘you two females do’ are the same verb Taf’ulāni due to the same metaphysical reality, i.e. in the beginning were only Adam and Eve and therefore ‘you two’ was the same regardless of gender. Again, in the same vein, Taf’ulāni is for ‘she two females do’.

These verbs have Haraka (Oral Motion) of Fat-ha for the starting Ta, since this Haraka is the least complex of all phonemes. But the passive counter parts have the Haraka (Oral Motion) of Dhamma (‘o’ sound), the most complex, since the passive concept is far more complicated than a regular verb, i.e. requires the concepts of ‘context’ ‘unknown doer’ and so on.

وكذلك الواو ايضا لما لم يمكن زيادتها أولا لأنه ليس في كلام العرب واو زيدت أولا أبدلوا منها التاء لأنها تبدل منها كثيرا ألا ترى أنهم قالوا تراث وتجاه وتخمة وتهمة وتيقور وتولج قال الشاعرا – من الرجز –
( متخذا من عضوات تولجا … )
وهو بيت الصائد والأصل وراث ووجاه ووخمة ووهمة وويقور لأنه من الوقار ووولج لأنه من الولوج فأبدلوا التاء من الواو في هذه المواضع كلها وكذلك ههنا.

From ‘Secrets of Arabic’
by Al-Anbari:

“Ya can be added to the beginning of the words without any reservation, unlike the ones above.”

Dara: Ya is added to the beginning of the third person present-future verbs i.e. Yaf’ulu (He does), Yaf’ulāni (You two do) Yaf’aluna (You all do). Ya is also added to the beginning of the female plural verb Yaf’ulna (They all females do) not to confuse with the Taf’ulna (You all females do).

وأما الياء فزيدت لأنها لم يعرض فيها ما يمنع من زيادتها كما عرض في الألف والواو

From ‘Secrets of Arabic’
by Al-Anbari:“But Nun is added since it is similar to Madd (Prolonging) alphabets. (Dara: Nun is actually Waw sandwiched between two ‘n’ sounds so it prolongs as Waw prolongs!)”

وأما النون فإنما زيدت لأنها تشبه حروف المد واللين وتزاد معها في باب الزيدين و الزيدين.

From ‘Secrets of Arabic’
by Al-Anbari:“This is how the order of addition of these letters is realized:1.    Hamza: For the first person singular, ‘I’, ie. the first the human being calls his own Nafs (Self) before others.
2.    Nun: For first person plural, ‘we’, ie. the person calling his own Self and other Selves.
3.    Ta: Second person, ‘you’, ie. for calling the person in front of him
4.    Ya: Third person, ‘he/she’, ie.For calling the absent third person.“

والتحقيق في ترتيب هذه الأحرف أن تقدم الهمزة ثم النون ثم التاء ثم الياء وذلك لأن الهمزة للمتكلم وحده والنون للمتكلم ولمن معه والتاء للمخاطب والياء للغائب والأصل أن يخبر الإنسان عن نفسه ثم عن نفسه وعمن معه ثم المخاطب ثم الغائب فهذا هو التحقيق في ترتيب هذه الأحرف في أول الفعل المضارع.

From ‘Secrets of Arabic’
by Al-Anbari:“Present-future verbs are treated the same way as the nouns, so far as the inflecting suffixes are concerned, and for that matter these present-future verbs are called Mudhari’ namely ‘similar’ (Dhara’) for they are similar siblings! These similarities are due to five reasons:1.    As with the nouns, which can be definite or indefinite ( i.e. universal and unspecified), the present-future verbs can be either in present tense or in future tense. As with the nouns that can be made definite by the addition of the prefix Al- (definite article ‘the’), the present-future tense can be made into exclusively future tense by the addition of the prefix Sin- (‘s’ sound).
2.    Lam (‘L’ sound) can be prefixed to both nouns and present-future verbs, e.g. Lam for verbs is as the ‘would’ or ‘might’ in English, and again Lam for nouns is for emphasis, i.e. indeed or for sure.
3.    As these verbs are used for both present and future, the nouns are also are used for double meanings e.g. ‘Ain means ‘eye’ as well as ‘a spring’ and so on.
4.    You can say either ‘I passed by a man (who is) hitting’ or ‘I passed by a man, a hitter’ here the verb is equaled and exchanged for an attribute as the same is done for a noun.
5.    The Haraka (Oral Movement) for the Ism-Fa’il (Verbal Noun) is the same as for the present-future verbs.“

فإن قيل فإذا كان الأصل في الفعل المضارع أن يكون مبنيا فلم حمل على الاسم في الإعراب قيل إنما حمل الفعل المضارع على الاسم في الإعراب لأنه ضارع الاسم ولهذا سمي مضارعا والمضارعة المشابهة ومنها سمي الضرع ضرعا لأنه يشابه أخاه ووجه المشابهة بين هذا الفعل والاسم من خمسة أوجه

الوجه الأول أنه يكون شائعا فيتخصص كما أن الاسم يكون شائعا فيتخصص، ألا ترى أنك تقول يقوم فيصلح للحال والاستقبال فإذا أدخلت عليه السين أو سوف اختص بالاستقبال كما أنك تقول رجل فيصلح لجميع الرجال فإذا أدخلت عليه الألف واللام اختص برجل بعينه فلما اختص هذا الفعل بعد شياعه كما أن الاسم يختص بعد شياعه فقد شابهه من هذا والوجه

الوجه الثاني أنه تدخل عليه لام الابتداء كما تدخل على الاسم ألا ترى أنك تقول أن زيدا ليقوم كما تقول أن زيدا لقائم ولام الابتداء تختص بالأسماء فلما دخلت على هذا الفعل دل على مشابهة بينهما والذي يدل على ذلك أن فعل الأمر والفعل الماضي لما بعدا عن شبه الاسم لم تدخل هذه اللام عليهما ألا ترى أنك لو قلت لأكرم زيدا يا عمرو أو إن زيدا لقام لكان خلفا من القول

والوجه الثالث أن هذا الفعل يشترك فيه الحال والاستقبال فأشبه الأسماء المشتركة كالعين ينطلق على العين الباصرة وعلى عين الماء وعلى غير ذلك

و الوجه الرابع أنه يكون صفة كما يكون الاسم كذلك تقول مررت برجل يضرب كما تقول مررت برجل ضارب، فقد قام يضرب مقام ضارب

والوجه الخامس أن الفعل المضارع يجري على اسم الفاعل في حركاته وسكونه ألا ترى أن يضرب على وزن ضارب في حركاته وسكونه ولهذا عمل اسم الفاعل عمل الفعل، فلما أشبه الفعل المضارع الاسم من هذه الأوجه استحق جملة الإعراب الذي هو الرفع والنصب والجزم ولكل واحد من هذه الأنواع عامل يختص به


6.  Why is the past tense verb based upon a Haraka (Oral Movement)?From ‘Secrets of Arabic’
by Al-Anbari:“The past tense verbs are based upon a Haraka (Oral Movement) since they are to be more complex than the imperative verbs which are based upon no end-inflection i.e. Sukun (Sound-less) e.g. ‘Uktub (Do write) the Ba (‘b’ sound) has free of any Haraka (Oral Movement). Moreover the past tense verbs are names for objects to render their attributes e.g. ‘I passed by a man (while he) hit’ or ‘I passed by a hitter’; here ‘hitter’ is an attribute for a man who was hitting in the past. Also past tense verbs do resemble names in conditional statements e.g. ‘if you did, I did’ i.e. ‘if you do I will do as well’; here ‘I did’ is treated like a noun and again here ‘I did’ is treated like a present-future tense verb which again acts like a noun.”

Dara: Imperative verbs are actions that have not yet taken place, so they have nil complexity (and therefore nil Haraka, Oral Movement)!  Past tense verbs have complexity (i.e. actions that took place in the past consumed resources and transmitted information and produced side-effects) therefore they are given a Haraka (Oral Movement) in order for them to be distinct from the imperative nil-complexity verbs.

أسرار العربية
المؤلف : كمال الدين أبو البركات عبد الرحمن بن أبي سعيد الأنباري
باب إعراب الأفعال وبنائها
إن قال قائل لم كانت الأفعال ثلاثة ماض وحاضر ومستقبل قيل لأن الأزمنة لما كانت ثلاثة وجب أن تكون الأفعال ثلاثة ماض وحاضر ومستقبل.
فإن قيل فلم بني الفعل الماضي على حركة ولم كانت الحركة فتحة قيل إنما بني أولا لأن الأصل في الأفعال البناء – وبني على حركة تفضيلا له على فعل الأمر لأن الفعل الماضي أسماء الأشياء في الصفة نحو قولك مررت برجل ضرب كما تقول مررت برجل ضارب وأشبه أيضا ما أشبه الأسماء في الشرط والجزاء فإنك تقول إن فعلت فعلت والمعنى فيه إن تفعل أفعل فلما قام الماضي مقام المستقبل والمستقبل قد أشبه الأسماء فقد أشبه ما أشبه الأسماء فلما أشبه ما أشبه الأسماء وجب أن يبنى على حركة تفضيلا له على فعل الأمر الذي ما أشبه الأسماء ولا أشبه ما أشبهها

7. Why are past tense verbs based upon the Haraka (Oral Movement) of Fat-ha (‘a’ sound in ‘cat’)?

From ‘Secrets of Arabic’
by Al-Anbari:

“Indeed Fat-ha (‘a’ sound in ‘cat’) is the least complex of all Harakat (Oral Movements), and past tense verbs necessarily have to be based upon least complexity. Any other Haraka (Oral Movement) has more complexity to it and therefore cannot represent the least complex past-tense.”

Dara: Past tense is already done and finished, no longer has any potentialities or probabilities attributed to it and it is atomic and no statistic applies to its instantiated occurrence. For that reason it is the least complex of all other verbs, e.g. present or future verbs, on the contrary, require magnificent potentiality-structures built within a divisible continuum with assigned probabilities and statistics and unnumbered many such spaces. For that matter past tense is the least complex of all verbs and therefore it has the inflection of least complex mouth area tissue movements i.e. Fat-Ha (‘a’ sound in ‘cat’).

‘he did’ is Fa+’a+La with all ‘a’ sound as in ‘cat’, so the past tense verbs are mostly build using the Fat-ha Haraka (Oral Motion).

وإنما كانت الحركة فتحة لوجهين:
أحدهما أن الفتحة أخف الحركات فلما وجب بناؤه على حركة وجب أن يبنى على أخف الحركات والوجه الثاني أنه لا يخلو إما أن يبنى على الكسر أو على الضم أو على الفتح بطل أن يبنى على الكسر لأن الكسر ثقيل والفعل ثقيل والثقيل لا ينبغي أن يبنى على ثقيل وإذا كان الجر لا يدخله وهو غير لازم لثقله فألا يدخله الكسر الذي هو لازم كان ذلك من طريق الأولى


Additional Concepts


From Treatise of Ibn Arabi
Book of Al-Jalāla (The Most Momentous)

Allah is a negation-Kalima (Divine Word) (established) firmly within the realm of ‘Alawi (Loftiest ranking Universe), all Translations glide upwards by means of her (female pronoun referring to the Kalima)”.

رسائل ابن عربي
كتاب الجلالة
الله كلمة نفي شدت في العالم العلوي فارتفع بها الترجمان

By ‘negation-word’ it is meant all that we see or can touch or can think about or imagine is NOT Allah! That is the meaning of La-Sharika-La-Hu (No associate for IT/Allah).

Q: What is the ‘Translation’?
A: When we have a thought, how does it become related to Allah who has no obvious presence here? When we see a part of nature performing, e.g. internal operations of a cell or the sub-atomic structures of matter, how that is related to Allah? When we are sorrowing how does that invoke Allah’s mercy? When we feel fortunate and have pleasure how does that invoke gratitude for Allah within us? The process that bridges from the Malakut (Spiritual Realm) into our human Wujud (Being) and vice versa is coined Tarjumān (Translation) by means of which the human being can bridge into the other spiritual universe or from there to here. Very much like the translation of computer languages from this keyboard I am typing in, into the hardware and CPU of the computer and backwards from the guts of the hardware to the screen I am looking at now, a bi-directional process of translations between the computer languages and instructions.

Q: Who is the ‘Translator’?
A: The human being. S/he is the translator of all that exists in this world, within him/her, into the Malakut (Spiritual Realm) and vice versa from the Malakut (Spiritual Realm) into the Mulk (Corporeal Realm).

Q: How are these ‘translations’ transported into the Malakut (Spiritual Realm)?
A: By means of the Kalima (Divine Word) ‘Allah’, which negates all else, i.e. IT is not anything else in existence, thus creating a gravitational pull (Jazaba) that pulls all the human translations upwards towards the Divine Presence by the Kalima (Divine Word) ‘Allah’, and that is the meaning of Bismillahi (In The Name of Allah), i.e. all that I am about to recite of Divine Words are translated and glided upwards only by means of Allah’s Divine Words and no other entity has the ability to do such lofty upward pull.

Note: The said gravitational pull is of ‘osmosis’ nature, i.e. all that which is NOT Allah rushes via some invisible gravitational pull towards Allah, through the barrier (Barzakh)!

Q: What is complexity?
A: Complexity is the content of translation, i.e. how much Divine Translation is performed by the human being, and the greater the measure of this content, i.e. the more complexity, the more gliding occurs towards Allah.

Q: What is ‘gliding’?
A: The second you have, for instance, the thought ‘who made this tree?’, or make utterance of some gratitude, you are gliding upwards towards Allah! This gliding is an operation caused by the Divine Presence of Allah within this universe where we cannot perceive or see Allah in any corporeal fashion by our biological eyes and other senses. The opposite of ‘go down’:

2:38. We said: “Get you down (to become perfect) all from here; and if, as is sure, there comes to you Guidance from Me (in verbal acoustic/syntax form), whosoever follows My guidance, on them shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve (like someone loved and valued by his powerful and protecting Beloved).

قُلْنَا اهْبِطُوا مِنْهَا جَمِيعًا فَإِمَّا يَأْتِيَنَّكُمْ مِنِّي هُدًى فَمَنْ تَبِعَ هُدَايَ فَلَا خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ )

Q: What is Hamd?
A: Hamd is a state wherein Allah is discerned from all else, with clarity and beyond the reach/use of any cognitive faculties or instrumentation, though intellects and instrumentations might be used to approach this Divine State.

Q: Why is Dhamma (‘o’ sound) added to Hamd, i.e. Hamdu?
A: Dhamma (‘o’ sound) indicates highest levels of complexities (contents of translations by human beings) required in order for the human being to glide towards Allah by entering into the state of Hamd wherein s/he sees or feels or thinks of nothing except Allah; like rocket fuel, the more the fuel the further the rocket travels.

رسائل ابن عربي

كتاب الألف
أحدية حمد الواحد في وحدانية
وحدانية حمد الأحد في أحديته




Note: Majaz (Corridor) could be rendered as a camera shutter where the person is able to take a quick glance of the other universe, or grasp a meaning from the spiritual realm. For “The + delay” see Thumma.

© 2009-2002,  Dara O Shayda, Editor: A. Attar