Category Archives: Tafsir Ishari

Vectorial Exegesis

Habitat of Tahlil

Source:

http://www.untiredwithloving.org/papillon.html

 

In your mother’s womb you were an aquatic weightless organism, like unto a cosmonaut traversing from one universe to another, incubated in a fluid chamber to ease the voyage.

Passing through the singularity of birth, you exited the cocoon of womb into gaseous atmosphere of this planet and upon her hard crust, emerging a new creature with de novo physiology, motility and uniquest innovative mentation.

Upon this earth and within her atmospherics a habitat for new-you, and similarly the womb an aquatic habitat, your living-life in perpetual metamorphosis from one habitat to another.

Yet upon the exit of the womb, you suffer from total amnesia of what was inside the mother’s incubation chamber, the new-you has no recollection of prenatal events.

You are extant in multi-verse, metamorphosed in myriad of distinct habitats e.g. the womb and this earth to name a few, the grave to name another.

Some are causal habitats with passage of time, some non-causal out of the time’s streams.

Prophet peace be upon him informed that there is another habitat, within which humans have a truly real existence, extant entirely in and of itself, namely Habitat of Tahlil or Divine Oneness.

“Lā ‘Ilāha ‘Il-lal-lāhu (Tahlil:No deity other than Allah) is a noble Kalimat, she has a place by Allah. She was gathered and beautified (in the eyes of humans). Whosoever says her sincerely from the heart enters Al-Jannah (Paradise) and whosoever says her while lying, shall remain safe in his body and his belongings until he returns tomorrow to Allah Almighty Who will settle accounts with him.”

كنز العمال الإصدار 2.01 – للمتقي الهندي
المجلد الأول >> الفصل الثالث في فضل الإيمان والإسلام وفيه فرعان: >> فضل الشهادتين من الإكمال
227 – لا إله إلا الله كلمة كريمة على الله ولها عند الله مكان جمعت وسولت (التسويل: تحسين الشيء وتزينه وتحبيبه إلى الإنسان النفسية أوتصوله – انتهى. مصححه) من قالها صدقا من قلبه دخل الجنة ومن قالها كاذبا حقنت دمه واحرزت ماله ولقي الله عز وجل غدا يحاسبه
(أبونعيم عن عياض الأشعري).

The Prophet stated : “Gibril informed me that Allah Almighty states:”Lā ‘Ilāha ‘Il-lal-lāhu (No deity other than Allah) is My fortress, whosoever enters it is safe from My punishment”.” (Reported from Ali ( ra)).

كنز العمال الإصدار 2.01 – للمتقي الهندي
المجلد الأول >> الكتاب الثاني من حرف الهمزة في الأذكار من قسم الأقوال وفيه ثمانية أبواب >> الباب الأول في الذكر وفضيلته
1769 – حدثني جبريل قال: يقول الله تعالى: لا إله إلا الله حصني فمن دخله أمن من عذابي.
(ابن عساكر عن علي).

 

Habitants of this habit form a collective:

There is no anxiety of desolation for the inhabitants of Lā ‘Ilāha ‘Il-lal-lāh (No deity other than Allah) in death, in grave or in resurrection. As if I (Muhammad) am watching over them while the blast goes off (The doom’s day blast) while shaking off the dust off their heads and saying: Al-Hanmdu Lil-lāhi (Perpetual Praise for Allah)—Al-Ladhi (That Which)—took away the sorrow from us [35:34].

الجامع الصغير. الإصدار 3,22 – لجلال الدين السيوطي
المجلد الخامس >> باب: حرف اللام
7620- ليس على أهل “لا إله إلا الله” وحشة في الموت، ولا في القبور، ولا في النشور. كأني أنظر إليهم عند الصيحة ينفضون رؤوسهم من التراب يقولون: “الحمد لله الذي أذهب عنا الحزن”
التخريج (مفصلا): الطبراني في الكبير عن ابن عمر
تصحيح السيوطي: ضعيف

 

As you do not recall ever being within the habitat of the womb, you also suffer from amnesia each time upon exiting from the habitat of Tahlil; in this bio-psychological form you cannot remember much of that habitat, though it is the humanity’s most true form of existence.

Dhikr(Divine Remembrance) is a spiritual practice to remember beyond the bio-psychological amnesia of birth.

Most notable reality of this habitat is that foul deeds cannot enter it, each and every human being can live in this habitat and their sins will not be allowed inside i.e. flawless.
الجامع الصغير. الإصدار 3,22 – لجلال الدين السيوطي
المجلد السادس >> باب: حرف لا
9703- “لا إله إلا الله”: لا يسبقها عمل، ولا تترك ذنبا
التخريج (مفصلا): ابن ماجة عن أم هانئ
تصحيح السيوطي: ضعيف
Allah firmly establishes those who believe with a Moveless Speech within the life of this world and the world after’ [14:27]

يُثَبِّتُ اللّهُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ بِالْقَوْلِ الثَّابِتِ فِي الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا وَفِي الآخِرَة

The ‘Moveless Speech’ is Tahlil, it is unaffected with any deeds the human might do, whether good or evil, untarnished by any sin, on the contrary it affects the sins, washes them away.

Imam Razi

Al-Isma’ Allah-i Al-Husna

Thabit (‘Moveless Speech’) means this habitat is untouched by human deeds i.e. human piety or evil does not increase or decrease Tahlil.

Habitat of Tahlil has may names, one particular one:

Al-Qaul-i Al-Sadid (The Barrier Verbiage)
The exegetes believe that Tahlil is a barrier that prevents all evil and doubt to enter the hearts of her speakers.

33:70 O you who have attained to faith! Remain conscious of God, and [always] speak Al-Qaul-i Al-Sadid (The Barrier Verbiage) i.e. Tahlil

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اتَّقُوا اللَّهَ وَقُولُوا قَوْلًا سَدِيدً

 

Another name:

Kalimat Al-Baqiya (The Everlasting Word)
[43:28] And he left it as a Word to endure among those who came after him, that they may turn back (to Allah).

وَجَعَلَهَا كَلِمَةً بَاقِيَةً فِي عَقِبِهِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَرْجِعُونَ

This habitat is for you to everlast, while your body and molecular mind withers, the sanctity of this habitat is rest assured for your true existence in multi-verse.

No matter what happens to you here on this planet, no matter what of good and foul you do, you can always return to the safety and sanctity of the habitat of Tahlil.

Imam Razi points at the event of Pharaoh threatening his magicians,  who were bedazzled by the Light of the Tahlil emanating from Moses peace upon him, as they submitted without his permission and did not fear the consequences of prolonged gory reprisal that awaited them:

Once exposed to the sight of the Habitat of Tahlil the concerns and anxieties of this world vanish.

For those who seek the secrets of cosmos:

Maqālid-u Al-Samawāti Wa  Al-Ardh (Keys to the Heavens and Earth)
[39:63] To Hu (IT, Him) belong the keys of the heavens and the earth: and those who reject the Signs of Allah, it is they who will be in loss.

لَهُ مَقَالِيدُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَالَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا بِآيَاتِ اللَّهِ أُوْلَئِكَ هُمُ الْخَاسِرُونَ

The foundation of cosmos is upon Tauhid (Divine Oneness), thus within habitat of Tahlil keys to secrets of cosmos readily available for whom Allah wishes to bestow.

 

© 2017-2002,  Dara O Shayda

Ishara: Death

blog-finger-pointing

 

See Also:

http://www.untiredwithloving.org/sabbihi.html#tafsir_ishari 

http://www.untiredwithloving.org/hu_samani.html

 

Imagine pointing at the moon, using finger, muscles and bones of your arm and hand while associating some language with this pointing and as such make others see the moon. For example you point and say: look at the disk-like shape, different crescents for different days of the year, gray spots like hills and valleys. Or you point and say nothing! All the same, thoughts and feelings conjured within your audience.

You do not issue anything of the moon’s true nature and essence, for it is 380,000 kilometers away, out of reach, however in this life we have the endowment of the Ishara faculty , a pointing tool to render something about a remote target.

People look along your arm and hand and finger consequently could place the words in the context of the disk-like stellar object, without traveling to the moon nor becoming an astronomer!

Your words alone have no meaning, your hand and finger alone have no meaning, their inexorable combination does. And does render thoughts which have nothing do with the arm hand finger and acoustics of your voice.

Similar to moon, we point at the word/concept of Death, as was used by Allah, we cannot reach to Allah and we  cannot understand the nature and essence of Death, but we can make Ishara at Death, we can point at the Death and others looking along the vector of this pointing cognize a new thought.

Call that Vectorial Thought or Ishara.

Isarah 1: Apoptosis

Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπόπτωσις “falling off”) is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms. Biochemical events lead to characteristic cell changes (morphology) and death. These changes include blebbing, cell shrinkage, nuclear fragmentation, chromatin condensation, chromosomal DNA fragmentation, and global mRNA decay. Between 50 and 70 billion cells die each day due to apoptosis in the average human adult. For an average child between the ages of 8 and 14, approximately 20 billion to 30 billion cells die a day.

 

 

 

What we call Death, is actually a terrific systemic ensemble of processes and highly specialized molecules and atomic structures, with unfathomable parallel operating mechanism, without which the life would not be possible:

Ishara 2. Life only possible upon Death

Cancer is immortality of a single cell, which wrecks havoc in all living organisms:

 

 

Make believe that above Ishara 1-2 are arm hand and finger pointing and the words in the video what you say to people around you to render the concept of Death i.e. pointing at Death.

In English language of Jews and Christians the word death simply means cessation of life:

A permanent cessation of all vital functions :  the end of life

Source: http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/death

 

In the language of Qur’an:

67:2. Al-Ladhi (That Which, Allah) created Death and Life

ٱلَّذِي خَلَقَ ٱلْمَوْتَ وَٱلْحَيَاةَ

 

Death is a designed engineered innovated being, like any other designs engineering and innovations:

Lisan Al-Arab

Ibn Manzour

The Death is a creation from creativity of Allah the Lofty
لسان العرب
موت
الأَزهري عن الليث: المَوْتُ خَلْقٌ من خَلق اللهِ تعالى.

 

In other words Death is not an abstract concept marking the cessation of life, it is an entity which has processes and designs, as does life.

In the verse above Death is mentioned prior to Life, and that was a source of much discussions amongst the grammarians and exegetes of Qur’an:

 

Shaukani

The antecedence of Death to Life might mean:

  1. Death in this life, life in the Life After
  2. Death is a Substratum upon which resides Life

تفسير فتح القدير/ الشوكاني (ت 1250 هـ)

وقيل: المراد الموت في الدنيا، والحياة في الآخرة. وقدّم الموت على الحياة؛ لأن أصل الأشياء عدم الحياة، والحياة عارضة لها.

 

This idea of Death as the cornerstone of life namely the Programmed Cell Death  truly found relative validity around 1970s! So even within the Western Scientific thoughts the concept of Death as the Substratum for life is quite novel and afresh.

Prior to the verse above Allah is mentioned as the Blest who created Death and Life i.e. Death as is Life a true blessing from The Divine Blest One.

Death is blessing, without Programmed Cell Death, for example you would not have toes or fingers!

We would have been hugest blobs of useless organic matter without purpose and functionality.

Therefore Death is a blessing Allah endowed upon every human being, upon every living being.

We did not infer nor interpret these statements as conclusions, neither does the finger pointing at the moon, we simply pointed at the Death, pointed at the Divine Words thus rendered de novo concepts in mind.

© 2016-2002,  Dara O Shayda

الصلاة: Salat or daily canonical prayers

This is a small write up about Salat:

Ibn ‘Ata

http://www.untiredwithloving.org/ibn_ataa_salat.html

Q: Why is our Salat not acceptable and not up to par?

A: Lack of knowledge:

http://www.untiredwithloving.org/defects_of_nafs.html#44

We are absent minded or bored during the Salat because we are ignorant Muslim worshipers! We Muslims need to learn and we Muslims need to acquire knowledge from deep within (Irfan).

As the Prophet peace be upon him said that there is no Salat without Fatiha, therefore putting 2 and 2 together we can safely infer that if we do not have the knowledge of Fatiha we could  and would not perform Salat properly:

Ansari Tafsir of Fatiha

http://www.untiredwithloving.org/ansaari_tafsir_1.html

Father of Rumi a.k.a Baha Walad Tafsir of Fatiha:

http://www.untiredwithloving.org/fatiha_baha_walad.html

Rumi’s Tafsir of Fatiha (collection of poems and sayings):

http://www.untiredwithloving.org/rumi_tafsir_fatiha.html

Qurtubi, Razi, Tabari, Tabatabai, Al-Alusi, Baqli  Tafsirs of Al-Hamd-u

http://www.untiredwithloving.org/qurtubi_1_1.html

 

Dara

 

 

 

 

 

Ishara (Pointing) vs. Interpretation

 

Imagine the subject matter of moon.

Imagine there is a textual book. In there you read about a disk like shape in the skies, is white and has lots of shallow pot-holes.

You read this textual verbiage and then look at skies searching for such entity matching this particular textual reference. During the day you find nothing, during some evenings you find something that matches that text.

The latter is Interpretation, you match the text to something out there in the world.

The other way around:

Imagine you saw the moon and you know somethings about its shape, motion, luminosity and so on.

Imagine considering this empirical knowledge and then reading a textual book and trying to find phrases in the book that somehow somewhat closely match the observed knowledge about the moon.

The latter is called Ishara, you match something observed out in the world to a text.

Interpretation is when the text points at an entity, Ishara (Pointing) is when an entity points at a text.

Most religious people read the spiritual texts and point at the world and match the text to the world. It works often, but more than often gives a very narrow view that guides to Dark Ages, in the European sense of the word and experience.

Sufis study and observe the nature, they match the observations to the spiritual text, see where and how the observations match the words best. Upon a match they say: Moon points at the words or makes Ishara (Points) at the Divine Words.

Ishara is a constant source of enlightenment with little risk to approach the Dark Ages.

Problem with Interpretation

It happens that some night the moon is not full, it is a mere crescent. If the religious person matches the text to the world, then says that there is no moon that night, he disbelieves in the crescent being the moon. Since there is no match between the exact words and the crescent.

Sufi matches the crescent to the textual words and sees that it is somewhat disk-like and has the shallow pot-holes, therefore crescent might also match the text as does the full moon. He does not disbelieve that crescent is the moon!

 

Ishāri (Vectorial) Tafsir (Exegesis)

Sufis had adopted an indirect technique to elucidate the Divine Words free of direct verbal explanations, and its origin can be traced to Maryam Virgin Mother of Jesus peace be upon them both:

19:29. Fa (Therefore) She Ishārat (Pointed) at he  (the newborn father-less Prophet when was questioned about the baby).

فَأَشَارَتْ إِلَيْهِ

Remark: Fa is used as a subsequent event caused by something earlier, something amazing happened to Mary, and the only action she could take to express anything about it was by pointing. Removal of Fa removes the entanglement with the past event and therefore lack of Ishara.

And again:

3:45 Behold! the angels said: “O Mary! Allah giveth thee glad tidings of a Kalima (Word) from Hu: his name Christ Jesus, the son of Mary

إِذْ قَالَتِ الْمَلَائِكَةُ يَا مَرْيَمُ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُبَشِّرُكِ بِكَلِمَةٍ مِنْهُ اسْمُهُ الْمَسِيحُ عِيسَى ابْنُ مَرْيَمَ

Putting the two together: Mary pointed at the Divine Word without herself explaining anything, the act of pointing brought about the explanation, indirectly, from the Divine Source not from Mary.

If you see something perplexing and extraordinary in the sky, you hurriedly point at it and at most you might utter: Look! or That! or There! While, at loss with words, your hand and pointing-finger stretches towards the fascinating object. The latter is the nature of Ishāri (Vectorial) Tafsir (Exegesis).

In absence of such gripping astonishment there is no ‘pointing’ and thus no Ishāri (Vectorial) Tafsir (Exegesis)!

Remark: As a physicist or engineer writes equations and numbers that express the structure of the world we live in, the breathing processes and the sounds/phonemes of our speech can also be used to describe the nature of the universe and its creation! The former is ‘equational’ while the latter is homomorphic i.e. like an acoustic projection rendering same-ness of structures free of equations.

Dara

Qidam and Judeo-Christian views

Salaam to Shakir and Salaam to Everyone

It is of paramount importance to cognize that life is ancient! That term ancient in terminologies of Muslims and Sufis called Qidam or Qadim, one of the Divine Names and Attributes of Allah. In language of modern English we coin Qidam as Infinite-Past or Deep-Past.

Fundamentalists of Judeo-Christians view the time within the range of the Jewish calendar of about 7,000 years.

The most significant discovery of Darwin was the age of life: ranges in 100s of millions to even billions of years!

The fundamentalist Christians of his time could not accept Darwin’s theories and discoveries about life, due to their dogmatic view of Jewish calendar being about 7,000 years old. To them accepting Darwin’s theory and scientific evidence meant God was wrong. We hear that today from Right-wing Christians in USA and still amongst some Jews.

The most important pillar of Sufi metaphysics is that life is from infinite past! Humans originated from infinite past.

There are two ways of understanding scriptures:

  1. Interpretation: Scripture interprets the cosmos and life, the believers read the words of scriptures and try to match their meanings to the surrounding world and life. This leads to what we now know as Dark Ages which cloaked Europe for centuries.
  2. Ishara (Pointing): The cosmos and life interpret the words of scripture! The reversal is the enlightenment which Interpretation falls short providing.

I might add to the above that Interpretation without placing limits for the words in scriptures occludes the light and hence the dark times that befall the believers. Interpretation used in moderation is just fine, but limiting.

Therefore the most correct way I know of reading scripture e.g. Qur’an, per Qur’an’s own guidelines, is to use the cosmos and life within us to interpret the Divine Words:

41:53 In time We (Allah) shall make them fully understand Our Signs in the utmost horizons [of the universe] and within their own ­Selves, so that it will become clear unto them that this [revelation] is indeed the truth. [Still,] is it not enough [for them to know] that thy Sustainer is witness unto everything?

سَنُرِيهِمْ آيَاتِنَا فِي الْآفَاقِ وَفِي أَنفُسِهِمْ حَتَّى يَتَبَيَّنَ لَهُمْ أَنَّهُ الْحَقُّ أَوَلَمْ يَكْفِ بِرَبِّكَ أَنَّهُ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ شَهِيدٌ

Therefore let’s make Ishara i.e. use the cosmos and what we know of the life to point at the scripture’s words:

Given the life-time of radioactive Carbon and given the molecular commonality of genomes we can point at the words in scriptures that life is infinitely old, Human is from deep infinite past.

 

Equipped with the latter understanding we can now cognize the concept of Qidam i.e. the infinite past and history of Humanity in that infinite range of time or timeless-ness.

The latter is a fundamental area of research and understanding amongst the Sufis.

 

Dara

 

Ibn Sina: Ishari (Vectorial) Tafsir (Exegesis) Surah Al-Falaq 113

Ibn Sina: Tafsir (Exegesis) Surah Al-Falaq

Discussion   Join

Prelude

There are several issues with the lection of the Surah 113 named Al-Falaq:

1. The Prophet peace be upon him recommended to read this Surah over and over, as he did himself seeking sanctuary of Allah. However within the Surah there is the ‘convenient’ translation of Naffāthāt Fi Al-‘Uqad namely: Seeking refuge from the magicians blowing into knots (then un-knotted without touching). This poses an issue with the Prophet using this Surah as off-repeated prayer, since in most of such recommendations the prayers are most general, regardless of the circumstances or context, and never such specific mention of the events in the daily life of the Prophet had been used as a part of a prayer.

2. The mention of darkness of night in this Surah being evil, is not in congruence with the rest of mention of night in Qur’an which has been rendered as a time of tranquility and worship and spiritual events!

3. The ending verse, seeking refuge from the evil of the envier, does not match any of the previous verses and it is completely isolated. Question could be asked: Why envy? why not anger?

Perchance we all have been reading this amazing Surah the wrong way all our lives!

The only satisfactory Tafsir (Exegesis) for this Surah has been found to be that of Ibn Sina. Sadly both Arabic and Farsi texts are quite hard to come by, but this Rahi (Author) was fortunate to be given both copies for studying. The only Arabic copy found on internet was preserved by Joseph Kenny, O.P. .

Ishari (Vectorial) Tafsir (Exegesis)


Singularity called Al-Falaq 

Ibn Sina
Say I seek sanctuary with the Rabb (Governor, Administrator) of the Al-Falaq: The Sunderer (Faliq) of the darkness of ‘Adam (Non-Being) by means of the light (Nur) of Al-Wujud (Allah’s Being-ness).

قل أعوذ برب الفلق، فالق ظلمة العدم بنور الوجود

Remark 1. Realm A: Azal (Sempiternity) where there is Allah and no one else, where there is Light and no concept of darkness. Realm B: ‘Adam (Non-Being) the universe where there is no light at all! The rules in either realm totally dissimilar to the other.

Remark 2. In between the two disjoint realms there is a Singularity called Al-Falaq or the Dawn. The Lord of this singularity is Allah. Allah allows the passage from one realm to the other, through the singularity of Al-Falaq, otherwise the two realms are inexorably partitioned.

Remark 3. Allah as Al-Fāliq (Sunderer) breaks the said singularity, Light floods emanates from Realm A: Azal (Sempiternity) into darkness of Realm B: ‘Adam (Non-Being), suddenly there is a medley of light and darkness which we feel we observe we think of as this extant cosmos. In Realm A there is Allah and no one else, in Realm B there is Allah and other than Allah.

Ibn Sina
And the very first creature emanated from it (through the singularity from Azal to ‘Adam) is ITs/His Qadha’ ( Primordial Decision, Decree)

وأول الموجودات الصادرة عنه هو قضاؤه

Remark 4. IT allowed to be known by other than ITself! This was a primordial decision amongst infinitely other decisions.


Ibn Sina

The original (emanation) had no evil within, but evil found concealed under the radiance of the primordial Light (Nur)!

 وليس فيه شر أصلاً إلا ما صار مخفياً تحت سطوع النور الأول عليه

Ibn Sina
(This evil caused by an occlusion of Light (Nur)) due to the opacity necessary for Mahiya (What-ness), originated from Huwiya (Who-ness).

  وهو الكدورة اللازمة لماهيته، المنشأة من هويته

Remark 5. opacity necessary for Mahiya (What-ness): The primordial Light (Nur) is Singleton, in order for it to bring to existence something other than ITself, it needs an opacity or something that causes shadow to be discernible, that shadow-caster is Mahiya (What-ness) that allows for something other than Allah to become patent, and the origin of this shadow-caster What-ness was Huwiya (Who-ness) the Divine Pronoun/Name/Attribute which allows for pointing i.e. “That over there!”, indicating the direction of something discernible. In summary What-ness is an opacity originated from Who-ness occluding the light, thus a dark shadow the source of all evil, the source of all existence as well.

Terminology:
Huwiya (Who-ness) is the answer to the question ‘Who is that?’.
Māhiya (What-ness) is the answer to the question ‘What is that?’.

Ibn Sina
The penetration of ITs Qadha’ ( Primordial Decision, Decree) is the primordial cause for ITs ’cause and effects’ which are ITs Al-Qadar (Immutable Destiny, Fate) and ITs creation. For that matter Allah said: ‘From the evil of what (IT) created’, the evil which is set from the creation and fate (Qadar), since this evil does not originate except from bodies created and caused from/by fate (Qadar).

ونفوذ قضائه وهو المسبب الأول في معلولاته هو قدرة وهو خلقه. فلذلك قال تعالى: “من شر ما خلق”. جعل الشر في ناحية الخلق والتقدير، فإن ذلك الشر لا ينشأ إلا من الأجسام ذوات التقدير

Ibn Sina
Also the bodies (matter) are from ITs Al-Qadar (Immutable Destiny, Fate) and not from Qadha’ ( Primordial Decision, Decree), and Fate is the source for for all evil since bodies (matter) could not be found except here (in Fate), for that reason annexed the evil to ‘what was created’.

وأيضاً، فلما كانت الأجسام من قدره لا من قضائه، وهي منبع الشر من حيث أن المادة لا تحصل إلا هناك لا جرم، جعل الشر مضافاً إلى ما خلق.

Ibn Sina then continues with the two major categories of evil, the two major sources of darkness(s) and occlusions for Nur (Light) :

1. Animal Self:  وَمِن شَرِّ غَاسِقٍ إِذَا وَقَبَ
2. Botanical Self: ومن شر النفاثات في العقد

Remark 6. Why Ghasiq, from Ghasaqa, used to describe the darkness? Why not Zalama? Given the known context of the verb Ghasaqa, it is clear there was light e.g. sun and then it set and then darkness entered to every possible location (cavity) or Waqaba. Similarly, there was Nur (Light) it was occluded by the above said opacity of the creation and then darkness enters into everything. Translation: And from the evil of the darkness once entered (into everything created).

لسان العرب
وفي التنزيل العزيز: ومِن شَرِّ غاسقٍ إذا وَقَبَ؛ الفراء: الغاسِقُ الليل؛ إذا وَقَبَ إذا دخَل في كل شيء وأَظْلَمَ.

Ibn Sina
The Animal Force (Animal Self) is darkness which is Ghasiq (sets after light) and opaque (severely occludes light).

أما القوى الحيوانية فهي ظلمانية غاسقة متكدرة

Ibn Sina
… and others such as lusts and anger, in general things that happen to something from outside, therefore this form of darkness (Animal Self) is renewable.

وغيرهما من الشهوة والغضب، والأمور التي تحصل في الشيء من الخارج تكون متجددة، فإذا تلك الظلمة متجددة

Anger and lust within an entity are impacts of another entity outside the capsule of Animal Self, therefore each time they occur is a de novo darkness.

Terminology:
Naffāthāt: derived from Nafatha flowing of breath with tiny spit out of the mouth, or blood from wound, or poison from the bite of a serpent.

لسان العرب
نفث
النَّفْثُ: أَقلُّ من التَّفْل، لأَن التفل لا يكون إِلاَّ معه شيء من الريق؛ والنفثُ: شبيه بالنفخ؛ وقيل: هو التفل بعينه.
نَفَثَ الرَّاقي، وفي المحكم: نَفَثَ يَنْفِثُ ويَنْفُثُ نَفْثاً ونَفَثاناً. وفي الحديث أَن النبي، صلى الله عليه وسلم، قال إِنَّ رُوحَ القُدُس نَفَثَ في رُوعي، وقال: إِنّ نَفْساً لن تَموتَ حتى تَسْتوفِيَ رزقها، فاتَّقوا الله وأَجملوا في الطلب؛ قال أَبو عبيد: هو كالنَّفْثِ بالفم، شبيهٌ بالنفخ، يعني جبريلَ أَي أَوْحى وأَلقى. والحيَّةُ تَنْفُثُ السمَّ حين تَنْكُزُ. والجُرْحُ يَنْفُثُ الدمَ إذا أَظهره. وَسمٌّ نَفِيثٌ ودم نَفِيثٌ إذا نَفَثَه الجرحُ؛ قال صخر الغيّ:
مَتى ما تُنْكِرُوها تَعْرِفُوهـا،        على أَقْطارِها عَلَقٌ نَفِيثُ
وفي الحديث: أَنّ زَيْنَبَ بنتَ رسولُ الله، صلى الله عليه وسلم، أَنْفَرَ بها المشركون بعيرَها حتى سقطت، فَنَفَثَتِ الدماءَ مَكانَها، وأَلقت ما في بطنها أِي سالَ دمُها. وأَما قوله في الحديث في افتتاح الصلاة: اللهمَّ إِني أَعوذ بك من الشيطان الرجيم من هَمْزِهِ ونَفْثِهِ ونَفْخِهِ؛ فأَما الهمز والنفخ فمذكوران في موضعهما، وأَما النفث فتفسيره في الحديث أَنه الشِّعْرُ؛ قال أَبو عبيد: وإِنما سمي النَّفْثُ شِعْراً لأَنه كالشيء يَنْفُثُه الإِنسانُ من فيه، مِثل الرُّقْية. وفي الحديث: أَنه قرأَ المُعَوِّذتين على نَفْسِهِ ونَفَثَ.

Prophet mentions the Arch Angel doing Nafath into his Self or Mind (Rau’) while saying: No person/Self dies until all her provision is fulfilled (given), so safeguard against Allah‘s (anguish) and be frugal in seeking (daily provision).

روع
 ورُواعُ القَلْبِ ورُوعُه: ذِهْنُه وخَلَدُه. والرُّوعُ، بالضم: القَلبُ والعَقْل، ووقع ذلك في رُوعِي أَي نَفْسي وخَلَدِي وبالي، وفي حديثٍ: نَفْسِي. وفي الحديث: إِنَّ رُوح القُدُسِ نَفَثَ في رُوعي، وقال: إِنَّ نَفْساً لن تموت حتى تَسْتَوْفيَ رِزْقَها فاتَّقُوا الله وأَجْمِلُوا في الطلَب؛ قال أَبو عبيدة: معناه في نفْسي وخَلَدي ونحو ذلك، ورُوحُ القُدُس: جبريل، عليه السلام. وفي بعض الطُّرق: إِنَّ رُوحَ الأَمين نفَثَ في رُوعي.

Remark 7. From this Hadith (Narration) one could extrapolate relationship between Nafath and provisions, so the angel blows with a tad bit of spit (liquid) into the mind or Self of the Prophet and that symbolizes giving of the provision, peace be upon both of them.

‘Uqad: plural of ‘Aqd, knot knit joint fastened locked together, in the case of this Tafsir (Exegesis) Ibn Sina considers this word to mean the organs and limbs and body parts tied together into a full body of a composite living creature. You might add on the modern thought of multi-cellular multiplex of cells.

Remark 8. From these two concepts Ibn Sina cognizes the Botanical Self (Nafs Nabati), the multi-cellular multiplex of organs and limbs and physiology and psychology that is suited for growth and expansion in multiple dimensions fueled nourished by devouring of provisions.


Ibn Sina

Naffāthāt Fil Al-‘Uqad is an Ishara (Pointing) towards the Botanical Force (Botanical Self), a force that grows the body and expands it.

ومن شر النفاثات في العقد: إشارة إلى القوى النباتية الموكلة، فإن القوى النباتية موكلة بتدبير البدن ونشوه ونموه

Ibn Sina
The Botanical Force (Botanical Self) was linked in similarity to Nafath (Blow of breath with tiny spit), since the blow of breath into something expands it in all directions i.e. growth.

 فأشبه الأشياء تأثير القوى النباتية النفث، فإن النفث سبب لا ينتفخ الشيء ويصير بحسب المقدار أزيد مما كان في جميع الجهات

Remark 9. These two forces, Animal Self united with Botanical Self shape the life and the cosmos for all to continue to survive. Both forces or Selves incubate much of the evil, not as a part of their design, but as a side-effect or after-effect of creation and engineering of ‘becoming’ and ‘living’.

Remark 10. And from the evil of envier once envied: the Botanical Self is in constant need of devouring provision to grow and maintain while the Animal Self is in constant motion and desiring and chasing after provisions, in ceaseless conflict internally with the Rational Self (Nafs Natiqa) and externally in competition with other creatures who might provide challenge for the needed acquisitions required by either Botanical or Animal Selves to be fed or sated. These experiences are felt as envy, to wish what others have, wish them to lose what they have, and wish to gain all that they have for one’s own provision.

تفسير المعوذتين
لابن سينا

 

سورة الفلق 113

    بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم. قل أعوذ برب الفلق، فالق ظلمة العدم بنور الوجود، هو المبدأ الأول الواجب الوجود لذاته، وذلك من لوازم خيريته المطلقة في هويته المقصود بالقصد الأول.

        وأول الموجودات الصادرة عنه هو قضاؤه، وليس فيه شر أصلاً إلا ما صار مخفياً تحت سطوع النور الأول عليه، وهو الكدورة اللازمة لماهيته، المنشأة من هويته.

        ثم بعد ذلك تتأدى الأسباب بمصادماتها إلى شرور لازمة عنها. ونفوذ قضائه وهو المسبب الأول في معلولاته هو قدرة وهو خلقه. فلذلك قال تعالى: “من شر ما خلق”. جعل الشر في ناحية الخلق والتقدير، فإن ذلك الشر لا ينشأ إلا من الأجسام ذوات التقدير.

        وأيضاً، فلما كانت الأجسام من قدره لا من قضائه، وهي منبع الشر من حيث أن المادة لا تحصل إلا هناك لا جرم، جعل الشر مضافاً إلى ما خلق.

        ثم إنه تعالى قدم الانفلاق وهو إفاضة نور الوجود على الماهيات الممكنة، على الشر اللازم مما خلق، من حيث أن الانفلاق سابق على الشرور اللازمة من بعضها. ولذلك فإن الخير مقصود بالقصد الأول، والشر بالقصد الثاني حاصل. فالحاصل أن الفالق لظلمة العدم بنور الوجود هو واجب الوجود، والشرور غير لازمة منه أولاً في قضائه، بل ثانياً في قدره فأمر بالاستعاذة برب الفلق من الشرور اللازمة من الخلق.

        فإن قيل: لماذا قال برب الفلق ولم يقل بإله الفلق، وغير ذلك؟ قيل إن فيه سرً لطيفاً من حقائق العلم، وذلك لأن الرب رب للمربوب، والمربوب هو الذي لا يستغني في شيء من حالاته عن الرب. انظر إلى الطفل الذي يربيه والداه، فما دام مربوباً هل يستغني عن الرب؟

        ولما كانت الماهيات الممكنة غير مستغنية في شيء من أوقات وجودها ولا من أحوال ثبوتها عن إفاضة المبدأ الأول لا جرم، ذكر ذلك بلفظ الرب، والإله أيضاً كذلك. فإن الأفعال محتاجة إلى الإله لا من حيث إله لأن الإله من حيث هو إله هو المستحق للعبادة، والمربوب لا يكون مقبولاً بالقياس إلى المستحق للعبادة، فالفلق لا بد له من فالق ورب ومؤثر، ولا يحتاج إلى المعبود من حيث هو كذلك.

        واعلم أن فيه إشارة أخرى من خفيات الأمور والعلوم، وهو أن الاستعاذة والعوذ والعياذ في اللغة، عبارة عن الالتجاء إلى الغير. فلما أمر بمجرد الالتجاء إلى الغير دل ذلك على أن عدم حصول الكمالات ليس لأمر يرجع إلى المفيض للخيرات، بل لأمر يرجع إلى قابلها. وذلك يحقق الكلام المقرر من أنه ليست الكمالات ولا شيء منها مبخولاً بها من عند المبدأ الأول، بل الكل حاصل موقوف على أن يصرف المستعد وجه قبوله إليها، وهو المعنى بالإشارة النبوية، على قائلها الصلوة والسلام: “إن لربكم في أيام دهركم نفحات من رحمته ألا فتعرضوأ لها”، بيّن أن نفحات الألطاف دائمة، وإنما الخلل في المستعد. وتحت ذلك تنبيهاً عظيمة [على أصول] جليلة وقواعد خطيرة يمكن للتأمل الوقوف عليها من غير تصريح.

        قوله تعالى:  وَمِن شَرِّ غَاسِقٍ إِذَا وَقَبَ: المستعيذ هو النفس الجزوية للإنسان الجزوي من الشرور اللازمة في الأشياء ذوات التقدير، الواقعة في صقع القدر. ثم إن أعظم تلك الأمور تأثيراً في الإضرار بجوهر النفس الإنسانية الأشياء الداخلة معها في أهاب البدن، وهو التي تكون آلة لها من وجه، ووبالاً عليها من وجه. فمن وجه كلها لها، ومن وجه كلها عليها، وهي القوى الحيوانية والقوى النباتية.

        أما القوى الحيوانية فهي ظلمانية غاسقة متكدرة، وقد علمت أن المادة هي منبع الظلمة والشر والعدم. والنفس الناطقة، التي هي المستعيذة، خلقت في جوهرها نقية صافية، مبرأة عن كدورات المادة وعلائقها، قابلة لجميع الصور والحقائق، ثم إن تلك اللطافة والأنوار لا تزول عنها إلا بهيئات ترتسم فيها من القوى الحيوانية التخيلية والوهمية، وغيرهما من الشهوة والغضب، والأمور التي تحصل في الشيء من الخارج تكون متجددة، فإذا تلك الظلمة متجددة.

        ولما كان جوهر النفس غسق وقب، أي ظلمة أقبلت، ولما كان الأقرب من جوهر النفس الناطقة تتكدر بتلك الهيئات الغاسقة عندما تقب أي تدهم وتقبل أوردها عقب ما ذكر ما هو أعم منها.

        والشرور الحاصلة من وقب الغاسق مشاركة ل”شر ما خلق” اشتراك الأخص والأعم، لكنه لما كان لهذا الخاص ميزته في صيرورة النفس مظلمة لا جرم، حسن ذكرها ليتقرر في النفس هيئة كونها من أعظم الرذائل، فتعظم الإجناب عنه ويقوي صارف الأخلاط.

        ثم قوله تعالى: ومن شر النفاثات في العقد: إشارة إلى القوى النباتية الموكلة، فإن القوى النباتية موكلة بتدبير البدن ونشوه ونموه، والبدن عقد حصلت من عقد بين العناصر المختلفة المتنازعة إلى الانفكاك، لكنها من شدة انفعال بعضها عن البعض صارت بدناً حيوانياً، والنفاثات فيها هي القوى النباتية. فإن النفث سبب لأن يصير جوهر الشيء زائداً في المقدار في جميع جهاته، أعني الطول والعرض والعمق. وهذه القوى هي التي تؤثر في زيادة الجسم المغتذي والنامي في جميع الجهات المذكورة، أعني الطول والعرض والعمق.

        وليس يمكن أن يكون شيء من الصناعات يفيد الزيادة من جانب واحد إلا وهو موجب النقصان من جانب آخر. مثلاً الحداد إذا أخذ قطعة من الحديد وأراد أن يزيد في طولها، فلا بد وإن ينقص عرضها أو ثخنها، أو يحتاج إلى أن يضم إليها قطعة أخرى أجنبية من جارج.   فأما القوى النباتية تضطر إلى النفث، فهي التي تنفذ أجزاء الغذاء في باطن الجسم المغتذي وتجعلها شبيهة بها، وتزيد به جوهر الأعضاء في جهاتها الثلاثة.

        فأشبه الأشياء تأثير القوى النباتية النفث، فإن النفث سبب لا ينتفخ الشيء ويصير بحسب المقدار أزيد مما كان في جميع الجهات.

        فالنفاثات في العقد هي القوى النباتية، ولما كانت العلاقة بين النفس الإنسانية والقوى النباتية بواسطة القوى الحيوانية لا جرم، قدم ذكر القوى الحيوانية على ذكر القوى النباتية.

        وبالجملة، فإن الشر اللازم من هاتين القوتين في جوهر النفس استحكام علائق البدن وارتفاع تغذيها بالغذاء الموافق لها اللائق بجوهرها، وهو الإحاطة بملكوت السموات، والانتقاش بالنقوش الباقية.

        وقوله تعالى: ومن شر حاسد إذا حسد، عني به النزاع الحاصل بين البدن وقواه كلها، وبين النفس. فإنه لما أشار أولاً إلى الشرور اللازمة من التغذي ثم أشار إلى التفصيل، وبدأ بالشرور اللازمة من القوى الحيوانية، ثم التي عن القوى النباتية، ثم التي عن البدن من حيث له القوتان شيء آخر وبينه وبين النفس نزاع آخر، وذلك النزاع هو الحسد المنشأ بين آدم وإبليس، وهو الداء العضال، أمره بالاستعاذة بالمبدأ الأول منه أيضاً.

        فهذه السورة دالة على كيفية دخول الشر في القضاء الإلهي، وإنه مقصود بالعرض لا بالذات، وإن المنبع للشرور بحسب النفس الإنسانية هو القوى الحيوانية والنباتية وعلائق البدن، وإن كان ذلك وبالاً وكللاً عليها فما أحسن حالها عند الإعراض عن ذلك، وما أعظم لذتها بالمفارقة عنه إن كانت تفارقه بالذات، وبالعلاقة بجميع الحالات.

        رزقنا الله التجرد التام والتأله الكامل، بحق النبي محمد وأله الطاهرين والحمد لله رب العالمين، الصلاة على النبي وأله أجمعين.

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