49:14 THE BEDOUIN say, “We have attained to faith (Mu’min).” Say [unto them, O Muhammad]: “You have not [yet] attained to faith (not Mu’min); you should [rather] say, ‘We have [outwardly] surrendered (Muslim)’ – for [true] faith has not yet entered your hearts…
قَالَتِ الْأَعْرَابُ آمَنَّا قُل لَّمْ تُؤْمِنُوا وَلَكِن قُولُوا أَسْلَمْنَا وَلَمَّا يَدْخُلِ الْإِيمَانُ فِي قُلُوبِكُمْ وَإِن تُطِيعُوا اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ لَا يَلِتْكُم مِّنْ أَعْمَالِكُمْ شَيْئًا إِنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ
The words Muslim and Mu’min are differentiated in Qur’an and by the Prophet’s sayings, these are different people with different definitions and virtues, different ranks:
33:35 VERILY, for all men and women who have surrendered themselves unto God (Muslims), and all believing men and believing women (Mu’min)…
إِنَّ الْمُسْلِمِينَ وَالْمُسْلِمَاتِ وَالْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَالْمُؤْمِنَاتِ وَالْقَانِتِينَ وَالْقَانِتَاتِ وَالصَّادِقِينَ وَالصَّادِقَاتِ وَالصَّابِرِينَ وَالصَّابِرَاتِ وَالْخَاشِعِينَ وَالْخَاشِعَاتِ وَالْمُتَصَدِّقِينَ وَالْمُتَصَدِّقَاتِ وَالصَّائِمِينَ وَالصَّائِمَاتِ وَالْحَافِظِينَ فُرُوجَهُمْ وَالْحَافِظَاتِ وَالذَّاكِرِينَ اللَّهَ كَثِيرًا وَالذَّاكِرَاتِ أَعَدَّ اللَّهُ لَهُم مَّغْفِرَةً وَأَجْرًا عَظِيمًا
Muslim is whom other Muslims are at peace with his tongue and his hand (deeds), and Mu’min (Safe Trustworthy) is whom all people’s blood and belongings are safe from, said the Prophet.
الجامع الصغير. – لجلال الدين السيوطي
المجلد السادس >> فصل: في المحلى بأل من حرف الميم
المسلم من سلم المسلمون من لسانه ويده، والمؤمن من أمنه الناس على دمائهم وأموالهم
التخريج (مفصلا): أحمد في مسنده والترمذي والنسائي والحاكم في المستدرك وابن حبان في صحيحه عن أبي هريرة، الطبراني في الكبير عن واثلة
تصحيح السيوطي: صحيح
There are two Darajat (Gradations) of safety provided by the followers of Muhammad peace be upon him, lower level with Muslim and higher with Mu’min (Safe Trustworthy).
Mu’min is a noun derived from the verb Amana or safeguarded or kept safe. Mu’min is a believer in Allah, with him or her people find safety and security for their lives and belongings.
Mu’min is not a man with beard nor a women with head cover.
Muslim is a lower gradation of safety, he or she provides safety for other Muslims from his or her words and his or her dealings e.g. does not use harsh angry language and does not steal or fornicates or usurps.
Q: What are the origins of the word Mu’min?
A: Al-Mu’min is one of the Divine Names and Attributes of Allah i.e. the Giver of Safety.
المُؤْمِنُ في صفة الله الذي آمَنَ الخلقَ من ظُلْمِه، وقيل: المُؤْمن الذي آمَنَ أَوْلياءَ عذابَه
Mu’min is not the English language equivalent of the word “believer” in Christianity and Judaism, Mu’min means the person who was entrusted to carry certain knowledge i.e. profess the existence of Allah and the beings from the spiritual world; in other words Mu’min is a sanctuary to safekeep such knowledges within his or her own person and safeguard for those around, while keeping the people and their blood and belongings away from his or her reach to usurp.
This form of safety is called Iman, in the language of Qur’an and it has Darajat (Gradations):
Iman has seventy or so branches: The most important the saying “No deity other than Allah” and the least the removal of harmful things from the roads.
الجامع الصغير – لجلال الدين السيوطي
المجلد الثالث >> فصل: في المحلى بأل من حرف الألف
الإيمان بضع وسبعون شعبة: فأفضلها قول لا إله إلا الله، وأدناها إماطة الأذى عن الطريق، والحياء شعبة من الإيمان
التخريج (مفصلا): صحيح مسلم وأبو داود والنسائي وابن ماجة عن أبي هريرة
A Mu’min removing trash and harmful things from the walkways provides a measure of safety for people, and that is a part of his or her Iman as opposed to fetishes turned into religious symbols e.g. beards and scarves.
Almost all commandments in Qur’an are issued to the Mu’min, male or female, and not to Muslims directly, following a few samples:
Order of Jihad is to the Mu’min not to Muslim:
4:94 [Hence,] O you who have attained to faith (Mu’min), when you go forth [to war] in God’s cause,
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ إِذَا ضَرَبْتُمْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللّهِ
5:35 O YOU who have attained to faith (Mu’min)! Remain conscious of God, and seek to come closer unto Him, and strive hard (Jihad) in His cause, so that you might attain to a happy state.
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ اتَّقُواْ اللّهَ وَابْتَغُواْ إِلَيهِ الْوَسِيلَةَ وَجَاهِدُواْ فِي سَبِيلِهِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ
Again keep trustworthy in presence of Allah for the prophets and for the people, not to betray for Allah hates the betrayers:
8:27 [Hence,] O you who have attained to faith (Mu’min), do not be false to God and the Apostle, and do not knowingly be false to the trust that has been reposed in you;
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ لاَ تَخُونُواْ اللّهَ وَالرَّسُولَ وَتَخُونُواْ أَمَانَاتِكُمْ وَأَنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ
Any sins might be attributed to a Mu’min except lying and betraying said the Prophet.
معجم الطبراني الكبير – للإمام الطبراني
باب الظاء >> عبد الله بن مسعود الهذلي >> باب
حدثنا علي بن عبد العزيز ثنا أبو نعيم ثنا سفيان عن منصور عن مالك بن الحارث عن عبد الرحمن بن يزيد عن عبد الله قال كل الخلال يطوي عليها المؤمن إلا الخيانة والكذب
For all these matters the Prophet ordered spread of Salaam (standing phrase: Peace be with you) amongst the Muslims to psychologically condition them to provide safety for other Muslims. Lowest levels of safety at that declaration, but when you read Salaam to someone, you are assuring him that he is safe from your words and your hand. If you cannot provide such measures of safety then stay silent and do not fake this declaration.
زيادة الجامع الصغير، والدرر المنتثرة – للإمام السيوطي
كتاب “زيادة الجامع الصغير”، للسيوطي >> حرف الهمزة
إذا لقي الرجل أخاه المسلم فليقل: السلام عليكم ورحمة الله.
(ت) عن رجل من الصحابة
Tha’lab said: Mu’min is by the heart, Muslim upon the tongue.
قال ثعلب: المؤمِنُ بالقلب والمُسلِمُ باللسان
Many generations of Muslims come to pass to bear fruits of Iman in unborn Mu’mins, near or far future. People do not become Mu’min overnight, it did not even happen with the Prophet peace be upon him, he worked hard with his people to produce a small nucleus of Mumins (First thirteen years of Makkan period). Nations as a whole might strive hard and long to give birth to a Mu’min.
Mumin subsists solely upon Allah and yearns nothing of the people, while Muslim has relationships with people and thus expectations and yearnings from people while does also rely on Allah. This is their major difference, hence a large gap.
So Muslim might struggle to make people safe from his evil, but Mu’min is at a statioinary Maqam (Rank) which people find safety with him.
This Rahi (Author) found many instances of ancient Muslims’ writings who were not able to and refused to call themselves a Mu’min, and that word was reserved for special very few, and they all considered themselves as Muslims i.e. at lower ranks. Some said to call one’s Self Mu’min is an arrogant conduct!
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