Category Archives: Terminology

Terminologies of Qur’an, Sufis or Arabic grammar

Ladun and Paired Divine Attributes

الَر كِتَابٌ أُحْكِمَتْ آيَاتُهُ ثُمَّ فُصِّلَتْ مِن لَّدُنْ حَكِيمٍ خَبِيرٍ

11:1 Alif. Lam. Ra. A Book with firm Signs (writings) then partitioned (in great details) Ladun (from, with) Hakim (All-Wise) Khabir (All-Aware)

وَإِنَّكَ لَتُلَقَّى الْقُرْآنَ مِن لَّدُنْ حَكِيمٍ عَلِيمٍ

27:6  And Inna (Indeed) you are instructed or encountered the Al-Qur’an(The Reading) Ladun (from, with) Hakim (All-Wise) Alim(All-Knowing)




Ladun is more specific than ‘Inda (with), indeed it deals with duration or range of  beginning-to-end notion, as boundaries of some region (of time or space). For example: Stayed with him Ladun(From) sunrise until the sunset, and the Ladun is situated between the boundaries of the action. (in this case the boundaries of time or events)

مفردات ألفاظ القرآن — الراغب الأصفهاني (٥٠٢ هـ)
لَدُنْ أخصّ من «عند» ، لأنه يدلّ على ابتداء نهاية. نحو: أقمت عنده من لدن طلوع الشمس إلى غروبها، فيوضع لدن موضع نهاية الفعل.


Lisan Al-Arab

Ibn Mazur

More generally phrased, connecting two boundaries which mark the beginning and end of some entity.

لسان العرب — ابن منظور (٧١١ هـ)

وَقَالَ اللَّيْثُ: لَدُنْ فِي مَعْنَى مِنْ عِنْدِ، تَقُولُ: وَقَفَ الناسُ لَهُ مِنْ لَدُنْ كَذَا إِلى الْمَسْجِدِ وَنَحْوُ ذَلِكَ إِذا اتَّصَلَ مَا بَيْنَ الشَّيْئَيْنِ، وَكَذَلِكَ فِي الزَّمَانِ مِنْ لَدُنْ طُلُوعِ الشَّمْسِ إِلى غُرُوبِهَا أَي مِنْ حِينِ.


Indeed very specific usage of Ladun for Allah‘s Divine Attributes in Qur’an as referenced above.  However often the mention of Ladun omitted but the concept of connectivity between two entities remains.


Umda Al-Huffaz

Samin Al-Halabi

Contrary to ‘Inda (with, possessing), when Ladun used the subject matter is present. In usage of ‘Inda subject matter could be conceptual and not present e.g. I have money means (‘Inda usage) I have money but not here it is deposited in the bank somewhere else  and yet if you say I have money (using Ladun) then the money is right here in my pocket!

عمدة الحفاظ — السمين الحلبي (٧٥٦ هـ)
بخلاف عند، والفرق بينهما أيضًا أن عند لا يستدعي حضورًا ولدن يستدعيه؛ تقول: عندي مال وإن كان غائبًا من مجلسك، ولا تقول لدي إلا وهو بمجلسك

Therefore when Allah uses the term Ladun the subject matter of discussion, usually being a gift to human being, is directly offered from the Divine Presence to the human being without any intermediary.

For example in the verse below, the reading material called Qur’an is directly from Allah free of any intermediary i.e. Allah did not delegate the wording of Qur’an to someone else on ITs/His behalf rather it was issued intact from Allah to the Prophet:

وَإِنَّكَ لَتُلَقَّى الْقُرْآنَ مِن لَّدُنْ حَكِيمٍ عَلِيمٍ

27:6  And Inna (Indeed) you are instructed or encountered the Al-Qur’an(The Reading) Ladun (from, with) Hakim (All-Wise) Alim (All-Knowing)

Equipped with this knowledge of the verbiage of Qur’an, now we are finally ready to investigate this question:

What do the oft-repeated paired Divine Attributes indicate and share in common? e.g. حَكِيمٍ عَلِيمٍ  or حَكِيمٍ عَلِيمٍ  or الْعَزِيزُ الْغَفُورُ

Imagine the visual landscape of one of your days: sunrise to sunset while you are viewing the landscape between the two events.

Re-image the landscape of your life apropos of Allah‘s Power and Mercy: let sunrise indicate Allah’s power over all things as the beginning boundary, and as  you travel through this landscape you end up at the other boundary i.e. Allah’s Mercy.

At all times and places you are between these boundaries of Divine Attributes, swinging from one to the other. While Allah has power over all things you feel safe that at no moment Allah might cause you harm and yet you are at awe and fearful of such Divine Power then immediately your heart assured by the Divine Mercy! Now view this verse accordingly:

الَّذِي خَلَقَ الْمَوْتَ وَالْحَيَاةَ لِيَبْلُوَكُمْ أَيُّكُمْ أَحْسَنُ عَمَلًا وَهُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الْغَفُورُ

67:2 Al-Ladhi (That Which) who created death and life, so that He/IT might put you to a test [and thus show] which of you is best in conduct, and IT/He is The Almighty, The Forgiver

Imagine the landscape of life on this planet: sunrise being The Almighty Allah (Al-‘Aziz) making death and making life in vast quantities in every moment of time and sunset being the Forgiver (Al-Ghafour) who forgives the living and forgives the dead.

But we cannot see Allah giving life and Allah taking life, we cannot see Allah’s power directly and we cannot see Allah’s Forgiveness directly.

Ma’rifa (Fragrance): Re-imagine the same landscape but this time you have no eyes! Merely can rely on your sense of smell  and imagine the sunrise be a Rose garden and sunset a Hyacinth meadow, you sense this landscape by the distinctive scent of Rose yet you have never seen any Roses, you start with the Rose garden as the beginning boundary and then attracted by this other familiar fragrance of Hyacinth though you have never actually seen one.

These boundaries are quite real to you, and no one taught you about smelling and loving these scents, and yet you know them as unlearnt knowledge of real entities. You walk from one to the other in this landscape.

Now let the Rose be Al-‘Aziz the Almighty and Al-Ghafour the Hyacinth.

The very essence of this aromatic landscape with fragrant boundaries is Ma’rifa or Irfan! You do not learn how to smell the Rose nor how to enjoy the scent you just know them from birth and that is called the Unlearnt knowledge.

The human life on this planet is nothing but plethora of deaths and births and the fleeting life in between, ‘Ibad (Servants) promenade their beasts within to forsake, between the fragrant meadows of Divine Attributes which beyond their boundaries this world ends. 


© 2020-2002, Dara O Shayda


مَخْزَنُ اَلأسْرارْ:Nezami selections from Reservoir of secrets


Neck of the flower has become the songbird’s pulpit

Locks of the violet up to the middle of the flower

Sugar and almond in detailed discussions with each other

Venus and Mars in love with each other




گَرْدَنِ: Neck referring to the place where the throat sounds the speech

گُلْ: Flower, result of knowledge that appears within the heart. (Istilahat(Terminologies) Araqi, found in the back of his Divan)

خاکِ ذَليلانْ شُدِهْ گُلْشَنْ بِهْ تو

The dust of the destitute transformed into meadows because of you (Muhammad)

Words that came out of the Prophet’s neck and mouth turned the abject dark un-living and worthless dust of our existence into meadows.

Like unto a songbird clutched at the neck of a flower i.e. the pulpit for singing, while the other flowers (violets) at best stretch up to the middle of the flower and thus cannot reach the pulpit to see the songbird, only to hear the songs.

بُلْبْلْ: Songbird, Spirit, Soul, Nafs (Self) according to usage in Sharh-e Shathiyyat by Rouzbihan.

بلبل بوستان مازاغ ; کنایه از حضرت رسول اللّه صلی اللّه علیه وسلم . (از غیاث اللغات ) (آنندراج ) (هفت قلزم ).

One might interpret this songbird as the Arch Angel Gabriel who sang at the neck of the Prophet i.e. placed words into his lips, or the Prophet himself, peace be upon both.



شِکَّرْ: Sugar, sweet, referring  to lips uttering the sweetness of the Divine Words from the other universe.

بادامْ: Almond, referring to the eye of the beloved or lover or referring to witnesses

* کنایه از چشم محبوب و گاهی بر چشم محب نیز اطلاق کنند. واله هروی گوید:
محبت پیشه را از گریه منع از دوستی نبود
شود زین روغن بادام تر طیب دماغ او.

(از آنندراج ).

* بکنایت شاهدان را گویند . (شرفنامه منیری ):
دهانت پسته و چشمانْت بادام
فدای آن دهان و چشم بادام .

؟ (از شرفنامه منیری ).


Locks of Violet means the petals.

Venus and Mars refers to effulgent and beautiful spirits in pairs.



This is the gathering of the Collective of spirits not the gathering of the bodies! Different times and different far apart places.

Men are sitting, they are in state of Tranquility(سکينه). You see one on a chair with no goblet of wine, he is being prepared to be served, not yet ready to taste the love!

The top right is the cup-bearer(ساقي) serving the Wine(شراب) namely the Divine Love.  Every one given a goblet.

Musicians (مطرب) are those who raise the awareness of the servants.

Lower left the man in black turban clapping his hands is actually the spiritual guard.

The dancer in red hat thumps his feet, attracting people’s attention to the music.

Number of men are writing, these are the scholars the poets the philosophers.

The lower leftmost, the old man in white beard looks swooned or evanesced from all his mortal characteristics though psycho-biologically still alive!

You see people lined up at the door(آستان), these are worshipers and good doers waiting their turn to enter.

Some gently hold almonds and sweets between fingers, they are served the words and spiritualities of the other world.

You see some are holding the guests’ hands or kissing their hands, these are the Servants(خادم) the servants.

Note: Interpretations from Istilahat(Terminologies) Araqi.


See Also:

Second verse: 

First verse:  

Some elucidations: 




With thanks to Dr. Moya Carey, Curator of Islamic Collections, Chester Beatty, Dublin

© 2020-2002,  Dara O Shayda






Subhan in Qur’an

See Also

Tafsir Subhan


سُبْحانَ اللهِ renders several components to experiential texture of an extremely personal and up-close feeling namely the Presence of Allah:

  • Free of Defects: Allah free of all defects and foulness and weakness and so on; distanced from faults
  • Amazement ( العُجْبْ ) and bewilderment about His/ITs Beauty; distanced from ordinary
  • Free of Associations: Allah free and above all else i.e. sanctification e.g. free of mate and children and companions; distanced from associates

List below has all the occurrences of Subhan in Qur’an categorized according to the three categories above, mind you these categories do overlap and others maybe unearthed by your own unique experiences:

Amazement ( العُجْبْ )

What does Amazement ( العُجْبْ ) mean?

Mood: Imagine you are flying over a rarely seen and astonishing landscape of nature and for that very few moments, you experience out of body bewilderment i.e. you lose your self into this amazing observation and suddenly you snap back and gain your composure. That is the texture of the experience called Amazement ( العُجْبْ ).

If you read the verses below, if I read the verses below, and did not  experience such mood then we did not read anything from Allah!?


36:83. Subhan (Amazement) for That Which (Allah) at Whose Hand (power) the dominion over all objects!!!

فَسُبْحَانَ الَّذِي بِيَدِهِ مَلَكُوتُ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ

One entity who at every moment of time and in every locality and at every process and at every object exerts ITs mastery and support to maintain the multiverse.


سُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ

27:8. Subhan (Amazement) for the Sustainer of the Infinite Multiverses!!!



Fat-ha of Nun indicates Plethora attribute of the multiverse or in modern English language Infiniteness.

Most amazing, that Allah feeds and powers and cares for infinite universes at all times without any tiring or interruption of support.


2:32. They said: Subhan (Amazement) for Ka (You, Allah), we have no knowledge other than what you taught us

قَالُواْ سُبْحَانَكَ لاَ عِلْمَ لَنَا إِلاَّ مَا عَلَّمْتَنَا

Angels professing how incredible and amazing Allah’s knowledge is! That they only know what Allah taught them.


30:17. Subhan (Amazement) for Allah when you enter upon the evening hours, and when you rise at mourning!!!

فَسُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ حِينَ تُمْسُونَ وَحِينَ تُصْبِحُونَ

Amazement for Allah for putting into place robust systemic periodic activities and systemic periodic respite and at each period we are astonished by  Allah’s masterful designs and we are bewildered by Allah’s Beauty reflected by such exquisite systems.


36:36. Subhan (Amazement) for That Which (Allah) created similars in whatever earth produces, in mankind and what (else) they have no knowledge about!!!

سُبْحَانَ الَّذِي خَلَقَ الْأَزْوَاجَ كُلَّهَا مِمَّا تُنبِتُ الْأَرْضُ وَمِنْ أَنفُسِهِمْ وَمِمَّا لَا يَعْلَمُونَ

Allah a Singleton Existence has no similars! While from That nonpareil-One came all things similar to each other e.g. humans quite similar to each other and to animals to plants. Particles/compounds of all kinds similar to each other. Processes of nature all similar to each other!

Then how from the most dis-Similar entity came such similarities!!??



34:41. Subhan (Amazement) for Ka (You, Allah) , You are most near to us, not they!

قَالُوا سُبْحَانَكَ أَنتَ وَلِيُّنَا مِن دُونِهِم

In the day of Judgement Allah resurrects regenerates all from this Earth and then directs a question to the angels “Did these people used to worship you?”.

Mood: At this time the angels are awe-stricken and immersed in the beauty of Allah not conscious of anything else, so to say, and suddenly the direct question startles them to the reality of the situation at hand i.e. the judgement.

They suddenly come back to their senses, so to say, and without any volition they say: O Most Beautiful Adorable One! How could we worship these  creatures, all the while you were so close to us and we drunken in Your Beauty!? And amazingly You know of everything we do or say or know… no way we worshiped these!


43:13. Subhan (Amazement) for That Which made serviceable to us this (animal or any transportation) that otherwise we could not have mastered

سُبْحانَ الَّذِي سَخَّرَ لَنَا هَذَا وَمَا كُنَّا لَهُ مُقْرِنِينَ

A first time rider in a car, or airplane or seaworthy vessel or on the back of an animal the rider is absolutely impressed beyond any words how humans could have tamed and used these metals or animals for transportation!

I used to frequent a stable where horses and donkeys were kept and was amazed at the size and power of these mighty beasts and yet a nine year old girl could mount a gigantic horse with little effort and the animal was attentive to her safety and every slight command!

And then I remembered this verse and that feel of amazement is Subhan for That Which I cannot see! But IT/He amazes me in absentia!


10:10. Their call, in that place/state, Subhan (Amazement) for Ka (You) my Sustainer … and the last of their call indeed Hamd-u (Adoration, Gratitude) for the  Sustainer of Infinite Multiverses!

دَعْوَاهُمْ فِيهَا سُبْحَانَكَ اللَّهُمَّ وَتَحِيَّتُهُمْ فِيهَا سَلاَمٌ وَآخِرُ دَعْوَاهُمْ أَنِ الْحَمْدُ لِلّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ

This is the rendition of the people in the Gardens of Eden face to face with Beauty of Allah while they are utterly self-absorbed in observing The  Beautiful One, no thoughts  no words, in complete shock, and in that sate in that place all could they give out is a call Subhan for You my Lord indeed Amazing my Lord how beautiful You are!

And the call ends with a note of gratitude Hamd since multitudes of other humans could not afford seeing That Beauty, only this minority were able to have eyes to see the Divine Light of Allah’s radiant Beauty.

And the fortunate ones at that place in that state have no business with others thus saying Peace! for we are entirely engrossed in Beauty of our Sustainer and leaving all others alone.


17:1. Subhan (Amazement) for That Which transported in the night ITs/His servant (Muhammad) from Masjid Al-Haram (Makka) to Masjid Al-Aqsa (Jerusalem)!

سُبْحَانَ الَّذِي أَسْرَى بِعَبْدِهِ لَيْلاً مِّنَ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ إِلَى الْمَسْجِدِ الأَقْصَى

Rapid transportation, so amazing without any crafted vehicles testament to Allah’s Amazing Presence.


17:108. And they say:  Subhan (Amazement) for our Lord, Verily, our Sustainer’s promise has been fulfilled!

وَيَقُولُونَ سُبْحَانَ رَبِّنَا إِن كَانَ وَعْدُ رَبِّنَا لَمَفْعُولاً


Free of Blame


68:29. They said Subhan (Free of blame) is our Lord indeed we are the transgressors

قَالُوا سُبْحَانَ رَبِّنَا إِنَّا كُنَّا ظَالِمِينَ


7:143. And when Moses came at the time set by Us, and his Sustainer spoke unto him, he said: “O my Sustainer! Show Yourself unto me, so that I might behold You!” Said (Allah): “Never ca you see Me. However, behold this mountain: if it remains firm in its place,the you will see Me. And as soon as his Sustainer revealed ITs/His glory to the mountain, IT/He caused it to crumble to dust; and Moses fell down in a swoon. And when he came to himself, he said: “Subhan (Free of blame) Ka (You)! Unto You I do turn in repentance

وَلَمَّا جَاء مُوسَى لِمِيقَاتِنَا وَكَلَّمَهُ رَبُّهُ قَالَ رَبِّ أَرِنِي أَنظُرْ إِلَيْكَ قَالَ لَن تَرَانِي وَلَـكِنِ انظُرْ إِلَى الْجَبَلِ فَإِنِ اسْتَقَرَّ مَكَانَهُ فَسَوْفَ تَرَانِي فَلَمَّا تَجَلَّى رَبُّهُ لِلْجَبَلِ جَعَلَهُ دَكًّا وَخَرَّ موسَى صَعِقًا فَلَمَّا أَفَاقَ قَالَ سُبْحَانَكَ تُبْتُ إِلَيْكَ

Moses, peace be upon, asks to see Allah in person. Allah shows him why he cannot see IT/Him and during this explanation the mountain shakes or explodes and Moses swoons. Upon recovery Moses is quick to absolves Allah of any blame or defect for what happened and blames himself and finds defects in his own Self by asking such inappropriate questions and thus asks Allah to accept his repentance.


Free of Associations


5:116. God said: O Jesus, son of Mary! Didst thou say unto men, `Worship me and my mother as deities beside Allah’?” [Jesus] answered: Subhan (Free of Associations) (are) Ka (You, Allah)

وَإِذْ قَالَ اللّهُ يَا عِيسَى ابْنَ مَرْيَمَ أَأَنتَ قُلتَ لِلنَّاسِ اتَّخِذُونِي وَأُمِّيَ إِلَـهَيْنِ مِن دُونِ اللّهِ قَالَ سُبْحَانَكَ


30:40. Subhan (Free of Associations) (is) IT/He the Lofty, associations they ascribe to IT/Him (idols, children…)

سُبْحَانَهُ وَتَعَالَى عَمَّا يُشْرِكُونَ


37:159. Subhan (Free of Associations) (is) Allah, associations they have IT/Him characterized by (Trinity, having gender, sleeps, has died…)

سُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ عَمَّا يَصِفُونَ


39:67. Subhan (Free of Associations) (is) IT/He the Lofty, associations they ascribe to IT/Him (idols, children…)

سُبْحَانَهُ وَتَعَالَى عَمَّا يُشْرِكُونَ


59:23. Subhan (Free of Associations) (is) Allah, associations they ascribe to IT/Him (idols, children…)

سُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ عَمَّا يُشْرِكُونَ


9:31. Subhan (Free of Associations) (is) IT/He, associations they ascribe to IT/Him (idols, children…)

سُبْحَانَهُ عَمَّا يُشْرِكُونَ


Ascribing daughters and what not to Allah

37:180. Subhan (Free of Associations) (is) your Lord, Mighty Lord, associations they have IT/Him characterized by (Being father of daughters …)

سُبْحَانَ رَبِّكَ رَبِّ الْعِزَّةِ عَمَّا يَصِفُونَ


17:43. Subhan (Free of Associations) (is) IT/He the Lofty, associations they ascribe to IT/Him (idols, children…) in their speeches

سُبْحَانَهُ وَتَعَالَى عَمَّا يَقُولُونَ


19:35.  Un-befitting for Allah to take/rear/adopt any child, Subhan (Free of Associations) (is) IT/He

مَا كَانَ لِلَّهِ أَن يَتَّخِذَ مِن وَلَدٍ سُبْحَانَهُ


39:4. Had Allah wished  to take any child, could have chosen any member of creation IT has created as IT wished, Subhan (Free of Associations) (is) IT/He, The Allah, The Al-Wahid (One) and The Al-Qahhar (The Subjugator)

لَوْ أَرَادَ اللَّهُ أَنْ يَتَّخِذَ وَلَدًا لَّاصْطَفَى مِمَّا يَخْلُقُ مَا يَشَاء سُبْحَانَهُ هُوَ اللَّهُ الْوَاحِدُ الْقَهَّارُ

The Al-Qahhar (The Subjugator) Divine Attribute is mentioned since Allah could force any member of the creation to be ITs/Child! Does not need to wait for some guy decide that for Allah!? How wrong and arrogant of us.

6:100. They ascribed associates of Jin (Cloacked Beings) while Allah created them (Jin) yet they invented sons and daughters for IT/Him without any knowledge,Subhan (Free of Associations) (is) IT/He the Lofty, associations they ascribe to IT/Him (children…)

وَجَعَلُواْ لِلّهِ شُرَكَاء الْجِنَّ وَخَلَقَهُمْ وَخَرَقُواْ لَهُ بَنِينَ وَبَنَاتٍ بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ سُبْحَانَهُ وَتَعَالَى عَمَّا يَصِفُونَ



23:91. Never did Allah take unto ITself/Himself any offspring, nor has there ever been any deity side by side with IT/Him: each deity would surely have stood apart [from the others] in whatever it had created, and they would surely have [tried to] overcome one another! Subhan (Free of Associations) (is) Allah, associations they have IT/Him characterized by (Being parent…)

مَا اتَّخَذَ اللَّهُ مِن وَلَدٍ وَمَا كَانَ مَعَهُ مِنْ إِلَهٍ إِذًا لَّذَهَبَ كُلُّ إِلَهٍ بِمَا خَلَقَ وَلَعَلَا بَعْضُهُمْ عَلَى بَعْضٍ سُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ عَمَّا يَصِفُونَ


16:57. And  they associate to Allah girls, Subhan (Free of Associations) (is) IT/Him

وَيَجْعَلُونَ لِلّهِ الْبَنَاتِ سُبْحَانَهُ


21:26. And they said Al-Rahman (Most Benevolent) took a child, Subhan (Free of Associations) (is) IT/Him

وَقَالُوا اتَّخَذَ الرَّحْمَنُ وَلَدًا سُبْحَانَهُ


2:116. And they said Allah took a child, Subhan (Free of Associations) (is) IT/Him

وَقَالُواْ اتَّخَذَ اللّهُ وَلَدًا سُبْحَانَهُ


21:22. Had there been in heaven or on earth any deities other than Allah, both [those realms] would surely have fallen into ruin! Subhan (Free of Associations) (is) Allah the Lord of the Throne (‘Arsh), associations they have IT/Him characterized by (Being  more than one…)

لَوْ كَانَ فِيهِمَا آلِهَةٌ إِلَّا اللَّهُ لَفَسَدَتَا فَسُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَرْشِ عَمَّا يَصِفُونَ


28:68. And Your Sustainer creates whatever IT/He wills; and IT/He chooses [for mankind] whatever is best for them. Subhan (Free of Associations) (is) IT/He the Lofty, associations they ascribe to IT/Him (idols, children…)

وَرَبُّكَ يَخْلُقُ مَا يَشَاء وَيَخْتَارُ مَا كَانَ لَهُمُ الْخِيَرَةُ سُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ وَتَعَالَى عَمَّا يُشْرِكُونَ


43:82.Subhan (Free of Associations) (is) the Lord of heavens and the earth the Lord of the Throne (‘Arsh), associations they have IT/Him characterized by (Being  more than one…) 

سُبْحَانَ رَبِّ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ رَبِّ الْعَرْشِ عَمَّا يَصِفُونَ


25:18. They said Subhan (Free of Associations)  (are) Ka (You, Allah) , it is not fitting for us to take close benefactors other than You!

قَالُوا سُبْحَانَكَ مَا كَانَ يَنبَغِي لَنَا أَن نَّتَّخِذَ مِن دُونِكَ مِنْ أَوْلِيَاء


10:68. And they said Allah took a child, Subhan (Free of Associations) (is) IT/Him

قَالُواْ اتَّخَذَ اللّهُ وَلَدًا سُبْحَانَهُ


12:108.Subhan(Free of Associations) (is) Allah and I am not one of the polytheists

 سُبْحَانَ اللّهِ وَمَا أَنَاْ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ


4:171. Exclusively only Allah is a Singleton Deity, Subhan(Free of Associations) (is) IT/Him

إِنَّمَا اللّهُ إِلَـهٌ وَاحِدٌ سُبْحَانَهُ


Free of Defects

3:191. … And they think about the creation of the heavens and the Earth (saying) Our Sustainer You did not create this in vain, Subhan(Free of Defects) are Ka (You, Allah)

وَيَتَفَكَّرُونَ فِي خَلْقِ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأَرْضِ رَبَّنَا مَا خَلَقْتَ هَذا بَاطِلاً سُبْحَانَكَ


24:16. And  why do you not say, whenever you hear such [a rumour], “It does not behove us to speak of this, Subhan (Free of Defects) are Ka (You, Allah), this is an awesome calumny

وَلَوْلَا إِذْ سَمِعْتُمُوهُ قُلْتُم مَّا يَكُونُ لَنَا أَن نَّتَكَلَّمَ بِهَذَا سُبْحَانَكَ هَذَا بُهْتَانٌ عَظِيمٌ

The accusation is so laiden with perversion and criminal intent that Subhan verbiage is used to declare Allah free of any such defects since the listener of the lie feels the Presence of Allah is tainted by such foul language and says Subhan to indicate that we could not use such defective language with such defective characters in Presence of the One who has no defects!


17:93. Or you have a house [made] of gold, or thou ascend to heaven – but nay, we would not [even] believe in your ascension unless thou bring down to us [from heaven] a writing which we [ourselves] could read! Say you, [O Prophet:] Subhan (Free of Defects) (is) my Lord, aren’t I only a mere human messenger?

أَوْ يَكُونَ لَكَ بَيْتٌ مِّن زُخْرُفٍ أَوْ تَرْقَى فِي السَّمَاء وَلَن نُّؤْمِنَ لِرُقِيِّكَ حَتَّى تُنَزِّلَ عَلَيْنَا كِتَابًا نَّقْرَؤُهُ قُلْ سُبْحَانَ رَبِّي هَلْ كُنتُ إَلاَّ بَشَرًا رَّسُولاً

People are chastising the Prophet peace be upon that what kind of God he is worship who cannot give him anything (Prophet lived as a poor person). Prophet then replies: my Lord is Subhan (Free of Defects)… defects are with me and with you all…


© 2020-2002, Dara O Shayda


Tafsir Subhan

لسان العرب – لابن المنظور الإفريقي


سَبَحَ بالنهر وفيه يَسْبَحُ سَبْحاً وسِباحةً

Lisan Al-Arab

Ibn Manzur Al-Afriqi

Sabaha: Swimming floating in water.


مُفرداتُ اَلفازِ القران




Al-Sabh: Speedy motion either in water or in air.

المرُّ السَّريعُ في الماءِ أو في الهَواءَ

سَبْحًا for horses gallop in Surah 79. 3

وَالسَّابِحَاتِ سَبْحًا

لسان العرب – لابن المنظور الإفريقي
وسَبْحُ الفَرَسِ: جَرْيُه.
وفرس سَبُوحٌ وسابِحٌ: يَسْبَحُ بيديه في سيره.
والسَّوابِحُ: الخيل لأَنها تَسْبَح، وهي صفة غالبة.
وفي حديث المقداد: ((أَنه كان يوم بدرٍ على فرس يقال له: سَبْحَة))

قال ابن الأَثير: هو من قولهم: فرس سابِحٌ إِذا كان حسنَ مَدِّ اليدين في الجَرْي؛ وقوله أَنشده ثعلب:
لقد كانَ فيها للأَمانةِ موضِعٌ * وللعَيْنِ مُلْتَذٌّ، وللكَفِّ مَسْبَحُ
فسره فقال: معناه إِذا لمسَتها الكف وجدت فيها جميع ما تريد

التَّسبيح: التنزيه

Al-Tasbih: to be far from, be untouched, unblemished, be free of something, to steer clear, to be respectable, deem or declare above something, pure, chaste, blameless, above reproach, scrupulous, correct, impartial.


مُفرداتُ اَلفازِ القران




Al-Tasbih: Rapid motion to worship and serve Allah.

Dara: Eagerness passion vehemence in presence of Allah to perform to do; not laziness and lukewarm outlook.

المرُّ السَريعُ في عبادَةَ الله


لسان العرب – لابن المنظور الإفريقي

Lisan Al-Arab

Ibn Manzur Al-Afriqi

سُبْحانَ اللهِ

Subhān-a Allah-i: Subhan for Allah means Declare Allah above companions and children and to declare above and free of all attributes that do not befit Allah.

سبحان الله: معناه تنزيهاً لله من الصاحبة والولد، وقيل: تنزيه الله تعالى عن كل ما لا ينبغي له أَن يوصف



لسان العرب – لابن المنظور الإفريقي

Lisan Al-Arab

Ibn Manzur Al-Afriqi


Subhān-a سبحانَ is in state of Nasb since it is in place of a  verb (ending with Fatha) namely unblemished (is) Allah.

ونَصْبُه أَنه في موضع فعل على معنى تسبيحاً له


Subhān-a سبحانَ is in state of Nasb if it is used as Verbal Noun ( المصدر) namely Unblemished Allah:

17:1 Subhan-a (Above All) who transported His/ITs servant by night

سُبْحَانَ الَّذِي أَسْرَى بِعَبْدِهِ لَيْلاً

قال الزجاج في قوله تعالى: {سُبْحَانَ الَّذِي أَسْرَى بِعَبْدِهِ لَيْلاً} [الإسراء: 1].
قال: منصوب على المصدر؛ المعنى أُسبِّح الله تسبيحاً


Subhān-a Allah-i: Allah is away or free from all defects and foulness.

سيبويه: زعم أَبو الخطاب أَن سبحان الله كقولك براءةَ الله أَي: أُبَرِّئُ اللهَ من السوء براءةً؛ وقيل: قوله سبحانك أَي: أُنزهك يا رب من كل سوء وأُبرئك


Subhān-a  Min: Amazement about something. In presence of Allah appear feelings of amazement and bewilderment.

والعرب تقول: سُبْحانَ مِن كذا إِذا تعجبت منه؛ وزعم أَن قول الأَعشى في معنى البراءة أَيضاً:
أَقولُ لمَّا جاءني فَخْرُه: * سبحانَ مِن عَلْقَمَةَ الفاخِرِ

ومعنى هذا البيت أيضاً: العجب منه إِذ يَفْخَرُ



قال ابن جني: سبحان اسم علم لمعنى البراءة والتنزيه بمنزلة عُثْمانَ وعِمْرانَ

اِسمُ العَلَمَ الجِنْسي

Subhān is a Proper Noun of Genus  and it is a Proper Noun Allah accepted for ITself/Himself said Imam Ali.

روى الأَزهري بإِسناده أَن ابن الكَوَّا سأَل عليّاً -رضوان الله تعالى عليه- عن سبحان الله، فقال: كلمة رضيها الله لنفسه فأَوصى بها

العَلَمَ means signpost or sign and الجِنْسي means genus.



سُبْحانَ اللهِ renders several components to an experiential texture of feeling the presence of Allah:

  • Allah free of all defects and foulness and weakness and so on
  • Amazement and bewilderment about His/ITs Beauty
  • Allah free and above all else i.e. sanctification e.g. free of mate and children and companions




© 2020-2002,  Dara O Shayda





لسان العرب – لابن المنظور الإفريقي

السَّبْحُ والسِّباحة: العَوْمُ.
سَبَحَ بالنهر وفيه يَسْبَحُ سَبْحاً وسِباحةً، ورجل سابِحٌ وسَبُوح من قوم سُبَحاء، وسَبَّاحٌ من قوم سَبَّاحين؛ وأَما ابن الأَعرابي فجعل السُّبَحاء جَمْعَ سابح؛ وبه فسر قول الشاعر:
وماءٍ يَغْرَقُ السُّبَحاءُ فيه * سَفِينتُه المُواشِكةُ الخَبُوبُ
قال: السُّبَحاءُ جمع سابِحٍ.
ويعني بالماء هنا: السَّرابَ.
والمُواشِكةُ: الجادَّةُ في سيرها.
والخَبُوب، من الخَبَب في السير؛ جعل الناقة مثل السفينة حين جعل السَّرابَ كالماء.
وأَسْبَح الرجلَ في الماء: عَوَّمَه؛ قال أُمية:
والمُسْبِحُ الخُشْبَ، فوقَ الماءِ سَخَّرَها * في اليَمِّ جَرْيَتُها، كأَنها عُوَمُ
وسَبْحُ الفَرَسِ: جَرْيُه.
وفرس سَبُوحٌ وسابِحٌ: يَسْبَحُ بيديه في سيره.
والسَّوابِحُ: الخيل لأَنها تَسْبَح، وهي صفة غالبة.
وفي حديث المقداد: ((أَنه كان يوم بدرٍ على فرس يقال له: سَبْحَة)).
قال ابن الأَثير: هو من قولهم: فرس سابِحٌ إِذا كان حسنَ مَدِّ اليدين في الجَرْي؛ وقوله أَنشده ثعلب:
لقد كانَ فيها للأَمانةِ موضِعٌ * وللعَيْنِ مُلْتَذٌّ، وللكَفِّ مَسْبَحُ
فسره فقال: معناه إِذا لمسَتها الكف وجدت فيها جميع ما تريد.
والنجوم تَسْبَحُ في الفَلَكِ سَبْحاً إِذا جرت في دَورَانها.
والسَّبْحُ: الفَراغُ.
وقوله تعالى: {إِنَّ لَكَ فِي اَلنَّهَارِ سَبْحاً طَوِيلاً} [المزمل: 7]؛ إِنما يعني به: فراغاً طويلاً وتَصَرُّفاً؛ وقال الليث: معناه فراغاً للنوم؛ وقال أَبو عبيدة: مُنْقَلَباً طويلاً؛ وقال المُؤَرِّجُ: هو الفَراغ والجَيئَة والذهاب. (ج/ص: 2/471)
قال أَبو الدُّقَيْش: ويكون السَّبْحُ أَيضاً فراغاً بالليل؛ وقال الفراء: يقول لك في النهار ما تقضي حوائجك.
قال أَبو إِسحق: من قرأَ سَبْخاً فمعناه قريب من السَّبْح، وقال ابن الأَعرابي: من قرأَ سَبْحاً فمعناه اضطراباً ومعاشاً، ومن قرأَ سَبْخاً أَراد راحة وتخفيفاً للأَبدان.
قال ابنُ الفَرَج: سمعت أَبا الجَهْم الجَعْفَرِيِّ يقول: سَبَحْتُ في الأَرض وسَبَخْتُ فيها إِذا تباعدت فيها؛ ومنه قوله تعالى: وكلٌّ في فَلَكٍ يَسْبَحُون أَي: يَجْرُونَ، ولم يقل تَسْبَحُ لأَنه وصفها بفعل من يعقل؛ وكذلك قوله: {وَالسَّابِحَاتِ سَبْحاً} [النازعات: 3].
هي النجوم تَسْبَحُ في الفَلَكِ أَي: تذهب فيها بَسْطاً كما يَسْبَحُ السابحُ في الماء سَبْحاً؛ وكذلك السابح من الخيل يمدّ يديه في الجري سَبْحاً؛ وقال الأَعشى:
كم فيهمُ من شَطْبَةٍ خَيْفَقٍ * وسابِحٍ ذي مَيْعَةٍ ضامِرِ!
وقال الأَزهري في قوله عز وجل: {وَالسَّابِحَاتِ سَبْحًا * فَالسَّابِقَاتِ سَبْقاً} [النازعات: 3-4].
قيل: السابحاتُ السُّفُنُ، والسابقاتُ الخيلُ.
وقيل: إِنها أَرواح المؤمنين تخرج بسهولة.
وقيل: الملائكة تَسْبَحُ بين السماء والأَرض.
وسَبَحَ اليَرْبُوعُ في الأَرض إِذا حفر فيها، وسَبَحَ في الكلام إِذا أَكثر فيه.
والتَّسبيح: التنزيه.
وسبحان الله: معناه تنزيهاً لله من الصاحبة والولد، وقيل: تنزيه الله تعالى عن كل ما لا ينبغي له أَن يوصف، قال: ونَصْبُه أَنه في موضع فعل على معنى تسبيحاً له، تقول: سَبَّحْتُ الله تسبيحاً له أَي: نزهته تنزيهاً، قال: وكذلك روي عن النبي -صلى الله عليه وسلم-.
وقال الزجاج في قوله تعالى: {سُبْحَانَ الَّذِي أَسْرَى بِعَبْدِهِ لَيْلاً} [الإسراء: 1].
قال: منصوب على المصدر؛ المعنى أُسبِّح الله تسبيحاً.
قال: وسبحان في اللغة تنزيه الله عز وجل عن السوء.
قال ابن شميل: رأَيت في المنام كأَنَّ إِنساناً فسر لي سبحان الله، فقال: أَما ترى الفرس يَسْبَحُ في سرعته؟ وقال: سبحان الله السرعةُ إِليه والخِفَّةُ في طاعته، وجِماعُ معناه بُعْدُه، تبارك وتعالى، عن أَن يكون له مِثْلٌ أَو شريك أَو ندٌّ أَو ضدّ.
قال سيبويه: زعم أَبو الخطاب أَن سبحان الله كقولك براءةَ الله أَي: أُبَرِّئُ اللهَ من السوء براءةً؛ وقيل: قوله سبحانك أَي: أُنزهك يا رب من كل سوء وأُبرئك.
وروى الأَزهري بإِسناده أَن ابن الكَوَّا سأَل عليّاً -رضوان الله تعالى عليه- عن سبحان الله، فقال: كلمة رضيها الله لنفسه فأَوصى بها.
والعرب تقول: سُبْحانَ مِن كذا إِذا تعجبت منه؛ وزعم أَن قول الأَعشى في معنى البراءة أَيضاً:
أَقولُ لمَّا جاءني فَخْرُه: * سبحانَ مِن عَلْقَمَةَ الفاخِرِ!
أَي: براءةً منه؛ وكذلك تسبيحه: تبعيده؛ وبهذا استدل على أَن سبحان معرفة إِذ لو كان نكرة لانصرف.
ومعنى هذا البيت أيضاً: العجب منه إِذ يَفْخَرُ، قال: وإِنما لم ينوّن لأَنه معرفة وفيه شبه التأْنيث؛ وقال ابن بري: إِنما امتنع صرفه للتعريف وزيادة الأَلف والنون، وتعريفه كونه اسماً علماً للبراءة، كما أَن نَزالِ اسم علم للنزول، وشَتَّانَ اسم علم للتفرّق؛ قال: وقد جاء في الشعر سبحان منوّنة نكرة؛ قال أُمية:
سُبْحانَه ثم سُبْحاناً يَعُودُ له * وقَبْلَنا سَبَّح الجُودِيُّ والجُمُدُ
وقال ابن جني: سبحان اسم علم لمعنى البراءة والتنزيه بمنزلة عُثْمانَ وعِمْرانَ، اجتمع في سبحان التعريف والأَلف والنون، وكلاهما علة تمنع من الصرف.
وسَبَّح الرجلُ: قال سبحان الله.
وفي التنزيل: {كُلٌّ قَدْ عَلِمَ صَلاَتَهُ وَتَسْبِيحَهُ} [النور: 41].
قال رؤبة: (ج/ص: 2/472)
سَبَّحْنَ واسْتَرْجَعْنَ مِن تَأَلُّهِ *
وسَبَحَ: لغة، حكى ثعلب سَبَّح تسبيحاً وسُبْحاناً، وعندي أَن سُبْحاناً ليس بمصدر سَبَّح، إِنما هو مصدر سَبَح، إِنما هو مصدر سَبَح.
وفي (التهذيب): سَبَّحْتُ الله تسبيحاً وسُبْحاناً بمعنى واحد، فالمصدر تسبيح، والاسم سُبْحان يقوم مقام المصدر.
وأَما قوله تعالى: {تُسَبِّحُ لَهُ السَّمَوَاتُ السَّبْعُ وَالْأَرْضُ وَمَنْ فِيهِنَّ وَإِنْ مِنْ شَيْءٍ إِلَّا يُسَبِّحُ بِحَمْدِهِ وَلَكِنْ لاَ تَفْقَهُونَ تَسْبِيحَهُمْ} [الإسراء: 44].
قال أَبو إِسحق: قيل إِن كل ما خلق الله يُسَبِّحُ بحمده، وإِن صَريرَ السَّقْف وصَريرَ الباب من التسبيح، فيكون على هذا الخطابُ للمشركين وحدهم: ولكن لا تفقهون تسبيحهم.
وجائز أَن يكون تسبيح هذه الأَشياء بما الله به أَعلم لا نَفْقَه منه إِلا ما عُلِّمْناه، قال: وقال قوم وإِنْ من شيء إِلا يسبح بحمده أَي: ما من دابة إلا وفيه دليل أَن الله عز وجل خالقه وأَن خالقه حكيم مُبَرَّأٌ من الأَسْواء ولكنكم، أَيها الكفار، لا تفقهون أَثر الصَّنْعة في هذه المخلوقات.
قال أَبو إِسحق: وليس هذا بشيء لأَن الذين خوطبوا بهذا كانوا مقرّين أَن الله خالقُهم وخالقُ السماء والأَرض ومن فيهن، فكيف يجهلون الخِلْقَة وهم عارفون بها؟
قال الأَزهري: ومما يدلك على أَن تسبيح هذه المخلوقات تسبيح تَعَبَّدَتْ به قولُ الله عز وجل للجبال: {يَا جِبَالُ أَوِّبِي مَعَهُ وَالطَّيْرَ} [سبأ: 10].
ومعنى أَوِّبي سَبِّحي مع داود النهارَ كلَّه إِلى الليل؛ ولا يجوز أَن يكون معنى أَمر الله عز وجل للجبال بالتأْويب إِلا تَعَبُّداً لها؛ وكذلك قوله تعالى: {أَلَمْ تَرَ أَنَّ اللَّهَ يَسْجُدُ لَهُ مَنْ فِي السَّمَوَاتِ وَمَنْ فِي الْأَرْضِ وَالشَّمْسُ وَالْقَمَرُ وَالنُّجُومُ وَالْجِبَالُ وَالشَّجَرُ وَالدَّوَابُّ وَكَثِيرٌ مِنَ النَّاسِ} [الحج: 18].
فسجود هذه المخلوقات عبادة منها لخالقها لا نَفْقَهُها عنها كما لا نفقه تسبيحها؛ وكذلك قوله: {وَإِنَّ مِنَ الْحِجَارَةِ لَمَا يَتَفَجَّرُ مِنْهُ الْأَنْهَارُ وَإِنَّ مِنْهَا لَمَا يَشَّقَّقُ فَيَخْرُجُ مِنْهُ الْمَاءُ وَإِنَّ مِنْهَا لَمَا يَهْبِطُ مِنْ خَشْيَةِ اللَّهِ} [البقرة: 74].
وقد عَلِم اللهُ هُبوطَها من خشيته ولم يعرّفنا ذلك فنحن نؤمن بما أُعلمنا ولا نَدَّعِي بما لا نُكَلَّف بأَفهامنا من عِلْمِ فِعْلِها كيفيةً نَحُدُّها.
ومن صفات الله عز وجل: السُّبُّوحُ القُدُّوسُ.
قال أَبو إِسحق: السُّبُّوح الذي يُنَزَّه عن كل سُوء، والقُدُّوسُ: المُبارَك، وقيل: الطاهر؛ وقال ابن سيده: سُبُّوحٌ قُدُّوس من صفة الله عز وجل، لأَنه يُسَبَّحُ ويُقَدَّسُ، ويقال: سَبُّوحٌ قَدُّوسٌ.
قال اللحياني: المجتمع عليه فيها الضم، قال: فإِن فتحته فجائز؛ هذه حكايته ولا أَدري ما هي.
قال سيبويه: إِنما قولهم سُبُّوحٌ قُدُّوسٌ رب الملائكة والروح؛ فليس بمنزلة سُبْحان لأَن سُبُّوحاً قُدُّوساً صفة، كأَنك قلت: ذكرت سُبُّوحاً قُدُّوساً فنصبته على إِضمار الفعل المتروك إِظهاره، كأَنه خطر على باله أَنه ذَكَره ذاكِرٌ، فقال سُبُّوحاً أَي: ذَكرت سبوحاً، أَو ذَكَره هو في نفسه فأَضمر مثل ذلك.
فأَما رَفْعُه فعلى إِضمار المبتدإِ وتَرْكُ إِظهارِ ما يَرْفع كترك إظهار ما يَنْصِب.
قال أَبو إِسحق: وليس في كلام العرب بناءٌ على فُعُّول، بضم أَوّله، غير هذين الاسمين الجليلين وحرف آخر وهو قولهم: للذِّرِّيحِ، وهي دُوَيْبَّةٌ: ذُرُّوحٌ، زادها ابن سيده فقال: وفُرُّوجٌ، قال: وقد يفتحان كما يفتح سُبُّوح وقُدُّوسٌ، روى ذلك كراع.
وقال ثعلب: كل اسم على فَعُّول فهو مفتوح الأَول إِلاَّ السُّبُّوح وقُدُّوسٌ، روى ذلك كراع.
وقال ثعلب: كل اسم على فَعُّول فهو مفتوح الأَول إِلاَّ السُّبُّوحَ والقُدُّوسَ، فإِن الضم فيهما أَكثر. (ج/ص: 2/473)
وقال سيبويه: ليس في الكلام فُعُّول بواحدة، هذا قول الجوهري.
قال الأَزهري: وسائر الأَسماء تجيء على فَعُّول مثل سَفُّود وقَفُّور وقَبُّور وما أَشبههما، والفتح فيهما أَقْيَسُ، والضم أَكثر استعمالاً، وهما من أَبنية المبالغة والمراد بهما التنزيه.
وسُبُحاتُ وجهِ الله، بضم السين والباء: أَنوارُه وجلالُه وعظمته.
وقال جبريل -عليه السلام-: ((إِن لله دون العرش سبعين حجاباً لو دنونا من أَحدها لأَحرقتنا سُبُحاتُ وجه ربنا)).
رواه صاحب (العين)، قال ابن شميل: سُبُحاتُ وجهه نُورُ وجهه.
وفي حديث آخر: ((حجابُه النورُ والنارُ، لو كشفه لأَحْرقت سُبُحاتُ وجهه كلَّ شيء أَدركه بصَرُه)).
سُبُحاتُ وجه الله: جلالُه وعظمته، وهي في الأَصل جمع سُبْحة؛ وقيل: أَضواء وجهه؛ وقيل: سُبْحاتُ الوجه محاسنُه لأَنك إِذا رأَيت الحَسَنَ الوجهِ قلت: سبحان الله! وقيل: معناه تنزيهٌ له أَي: سبحان وجهه.
وقيل: سُبْحاتُ وجهه كلام معترض بين الفعل والمفعول أَي: لو كشفها لأَحرقت كل شيء أَدركه بصره، فكأَنه قال: لأَحرقتُ سُبُحاتُ الله كل شيء أَبصره، كما تقول: لو دخل المَلِكُ البلدَ لقتل، والعِياذُ بالله، كلَّ من فيه.
قال: وأَقرب من هذا كله أَن المعنى: لو انكشف من أَنوار الله التي تحجب العباد عنه شيء لأَهلك كلَّ من وقع عليه ذلك النورُ، كما خَرَّ موسى -على نبينا وعليه السلام- صَعِقاً وتَقَطَّعَ الجبلُ دَكّاً، لمَّا تجلى الله سبحانه وتعالى؛ ويقال: السُّبُحاتُ مواضع السجود.
والسُّبْحَةُ: الخَرَزاتُ التي يَعُدُّ المُسَبَّحُ بها تسبيحه، وهي كلمة مولَّدة.
وقد يكون التسبيح بمعنى الصلاة والذِّكر، تقول: قَضَيْتُ سُبْحَتي.
وروي أَن عمر -رضي اللَّه عنه- جَلَدَ رجلين سَبَّحا بعد العصر أَي: صَلَّيا؛ قال الأَعشى:
وسَبِّحْ على حين العَشِيَّاتِ والضُّحَى * ولا تَعْبُدِ الشيطانَ، واللهَ فاعْبُدا
يعني: الصلاة بالصَّباح والمَساء، وعليه فسر قوله: {فَسُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ حِينَ تُمْسُونَ وَحِينَ تُصْبِحُونَ} [الروم: 17].
يأْمرهم بالصلاة في هذين الوَقتين.
وقال الفراء: حين تمسون المغرب والعشاء، وحين تصبحون صلاة الفجر، وعشيّاً العصر، وحين تظهرون الأُولى.
وقوله: {وَسَبِّحْ بِالْعَشِيِّ وَالْإِبْكَارِ} [آل عمران: 41] أَي: وصَلِّ.
وقوله عز وجل: {فَلَوْلاَ أَنَّهُ كَانَ مِنَ الْمُسَبِّحِينَ} [الصافات: 143]؛ أَراد من المصلين قبل ذلك.
وقيل: إِنما ذلك لأَنه قال في بطن الحوت: {أَنْ لاَ إِلَهَ إِلَّا أَنْتَ سُبْحَانَكَ إِنِّي كُنْتُ مِنَ الظَّالِمِينَ} [الأنبياء: 87].
وقوله: {يُسَبِّحُونَ اللَّيْلَ وَالنَّهَارَ لاَ يَفْتُرُونَ} [الأنبياء: 20]؛ يقال: إِن مَجْرَى التسبيح فيهم كمَجرى النَّفَسِ منا لا يَشْغَلُنا عن النَّفَسِ شيء.
وقوله: {أَلَمْ أَقُلْ لَكُمْ لَوْلاَ تُسَبِّحُونَ} [القلم: 28] أَي: تستثنون، وفي الاستثناء تعظيمُ الله والإِقرارُ بأَنه لا يشاء أَحدٌ إِلاَّ أَن يشاء الله، فوضع تنزيه الله موضع الاستثناء.
والسُّبْحةُ: الدعاء وصلاةُ التطوع والنافلةُ؛ يقال: فرغ فلانٌ من سُبْحَته أَي: من صلاته النافلة، سمِّيت الصلاة تسبيحاً لأَن التسبيح تعظيم الله وتنزيهه من كلِّ سوء.
قال ابن الأَثير: وإِنما خُصت النافلة بالسُّبْحة، وإِن شاركتها الفريضة في معنى التسبيح، لأَن التسبيحات في الفرائض نوافلُ، فقيل لصلاة النافلة سُبْحة: لأَنها نافلة كالتسبيحات والأَذكار في أَنها غير واجبة.
وقد تكرر ذكر السُّبْحة في الحديث كثيراً فمنها: ((اجعلوا صلاتكم معهم سُبْحَةً)).
أَي: نافلة، ومنها: ((كنا إِذا نزلنا منزلاً لا نُسَبِّحُ حتى نَحُلَّ الرِّحال)).
أَراد صلاة الضحى، بمعنى: أَنهم كانوا مع اهتمامهم بالصلاة لا يباشرونها حتى يَحُطُّوا الرحال ويُريحوا الجمالَ رفقاً بها وإِحساناً. (ج/ص: 2/474)
والسُّبْحَة: التطوُّع من الذِّكر والصلاة.
قال ابن الأَثير: وقد يطلق التسبيح على غيره من أَنواع الذكر مجازاً كالتحميد والتمجيد وغيرهما.
وسُبْحَةُ الله: جلالُه.
وقيل في قوله تعالى: {إِنَّ لَكَ فِي اَلنَّهَارِ سَبْحاً طَوِيلاً} [المزمل: 7] أَي: فراغاً للنوم، وقد يكون السَّبْحُ بالليل.
والسَّبْحُ أَيضاً: النوم نفسه.
وقال ابن عرفة الملقب بنفطويه في قوله تعالى: {فَسَبِّحْ بِاسْمِ رَبِّكَ الْعَظِيمِ} [الواقعة: 74] أَي: سبحه بأَسمائه ونزهه عن التسمية بغير ما سمَّى به نفسه، قال: ومن سمى الله تعالى بغير ما سمى به نفسه، فهو مُلْحِدٌ في أَسمائه، وكلُّ من دعاه بأَسمائه فَمُسَبِّح له بها إِذ كانت أَسماؤُه مدائح له وأَوصافاً.
قال الله تعالى: {وَلِلَّهِ الْأَسْمَاءُ الْحُسْنَى فَادْعُوهُ بِهَا} [الأعراف: 180]، وهي صفاته التي وصف بها نفسه، وكل من دعا الله بأَسمائه فقد أَطاعه ومدحه ولَحِقَه ثوابُه.
وروي عن رسول الله -صلى الله عليه وسلم- أَنه قال: ((ما أَحدٌ أَغْيَرَ من الله ولذلك حَرَّمَ الفواحشَ، وليس أَحدٌ أَحبَّ إِليه المَدْحُ من الله تعالى)).
والسَّبْحُ أَيضاً: السكون.
والسَّبْحُ: التقَلُّبُ والانتشار في الأَرض والتَّصَرُّفُ في المعاش، فكأَنه ضِدٌّ.
وفي حديث الوضوء: ((فأَدخل اصْبُعَيْه السَّبَّاحَتَيْنِ في أُذنيه)).
السَّبَّاحةُ والمُسَبِّحةُ: الإِصبع التي تلي الإِبهام، سميت بذلك لأَنها يشار بها عند التسبيح.
والسَّبْحَةُ، بفتح السين: ثوب من جُلُود، وجمعها سِباحٌ؛ قال مالك بن خالد الهذلي:
وسَبَّاحٌ ومَنَّاحٌ ومُعْطٍ * إِذا عادَ المَسارِحُ كالسِّباحِ
وصحَّف أَبو عبيدة هذه الكلمة فرواها بالجيم.
قال ابن بري: لم يذكر، يعني: الجوهري، السَّبْحَة، بالفتح، وهي الثياب من الجلود، وهي التي وقع فيها التصحيف.
فقال أَبو عبيدة: هي السُّبْجة، بالجيم وضم السين، وغلط في ذلك، وإِنما السُّبْجَة كساء أَسود، واستشهد أَبو عبيدة على صحة قوله بقول مالك الهذلي:
إِذا عاد المسارح كالسباج *
فصحَّف البيت أَيضاً، قال: وهذا البيت من قصيدة حائية مدح بها زهيرَ بنَ الأَغَرِّ اللحياني، وأَوَّلها:
فَتىً ما ابنُ الأَغَرِّ، إِذا شَتَوْنا * وحُبَّ الزَّادُ في شَهْرَيْ قِـُماحِ
والمسارح: المواضع التي تسرح إِليها الإِبل، فشبهها لمَّا أَجدبت بالجلود المُلْسِ في عدم النبات، وقد ذكر ابن سيده في ترجمة سبج، بالجيم.
ما صورته: والسِّباحُ ثياب من جلود، واحدتها سُبْجَة، وهي بالحاء أَعلى، على أَنه أَيضاً قد قال في هذه الترجمة: إِن أَبا عبيدة صحَّف هذه الكلمة ورواها بالجيم كما ذكرناه آنفاً، ومن العجب وقوعه في ذلك مع حكايته عن أَبي عبيدة أَنه وقع فيه، اللهم إِلا أَن يكون وجد نقلاً فيه، وكان يتعين عليه أَنه لو وجد نقلاً فيه أَن يذكره أَيضاً في هذه الترجمة عند تخطئته لأَبي عبيدة ونسبته إِلى التصحيف ليسلم هو أَيضاً من التهمة والانتقاد.
أَبو عمرو: كساءٌ مُسبَّح، بالباء، قوي شديد، قال: والمُسَبَّحُ، بالباء أَيضاً، المُعَرَّضُ، وقال شمر: السِّباحُ، بالحاء، قُمُصٌ للصبيان من جلود؛ وأَنشد:
كأَنَّ زوائِدَ المُهُراتِ عنها * جَواري الهِنْدِ، مُرْخِيةَ السِّباحِ
قال: وأَما السُّبْحَة، بضم السين والجيم، فكساء أَسود.
والسُّبْحَة: القطعة من القطن.
وسَبُوحةُ، بفتح السين مخففة: البلدُ الحرامُ، ويقال: وادٍ بعرفات؛ وقال يصف نُوقَ الحجيج: (ج/ص: 2/475)

خَوارِجُ من نَعْمانَ، أَو من سَبُوحةٍ * إِلى البيتِ، أَو يَخْرُجْنَ من نَجْدِ كَبْكَبِ








Habitat of Tahlil



In your mother’s womb you were an aquatic weightless organism, like unto a cosmonaut traversing from one universe to another, incubated in a fluid chamber to ease the voyage.

Passing through the singularity of birth, you exited the cocoon of womb into gaseous atmosphere of this planet and upon her hard crust, emerging a new creature with de novo physiology, motility and uniquest innovative mentation.

Upon this earth and within her atmospherics a habitat for new-you, and similarly the womb an aquatic habitat, your living-life in perpetual metamorphosis from one habitat to another.

Yet upon the exit of the womb, you suffer from total amnesia of what was inside the mother’s incubation chamber, the new-you has no recollection of prenatal events.

You are extant in multi-verse, metamorphosed in myriad of distinct habitats e.g. the womb and this earth to name a few, the grave to name another.

Some are causal habitats with passage of time, some non-causal out of the time’s streams.

Prophet peace be upon him informed that there is another habitat, within which humans have a truly real existence, extant entirely in and of itself, namely Habitat of Tahlil or Divine Oneness.

“Lā ‘Ilāha ‘Il-lal-lāhu (Tahlil:No deity other than Allah) is a noble Kalimat, she has a place by Allah. She was gathered and beautified (in the eyes of humans). Whosoever says her sincerely from the heart enters Al-Jannah (Paradise) and whosoever says her while lying, shall remain safe in his body and his belongings until he returns tomorrow to Allah Almighty Who will settle accounts with him.”

كنز العمال الإصدار 2.01 – للمتقي الهندي
المجلد الأول >> الفصل الثالث في فضل الإيمان والإسلام وفيه فرعان: >> فضل الشهادتين من الإكمال
227 – لا إله إلا الله كلمة كريمة على الله ولها عند الله مكان جمعت وسولت (التسويل: تحسين الشيء وتزينه وتحبيبه إلى الإنسان النفسية أوتصوله – انتهى. مصححه) من قالها صدقا من قلبه دخل الجنة ومن قالها كاذبا حقنت دمه واحرزت ماله ولقي الله عز وجل غدا يحاسبه
(أبونعيم عن عياض الأشعري).

The Prophet stated : “Gibril informed me that Allah Almighty states:”Lā ‘Ilāha ‘Il-lal-lāhu (No deity other than Allah) is My fortress, whosoever enters it is safe from My punishment”.” (Reported from Ali ( ra)).

كنز العمال الإصدار 2.01 – للمتقي الهندي
المجلد الأول >> الكتاب الثاني من حرف الهمزة في الأذكار من قسم الأقوال وفيه ثمانية أبواب >> الباب الأول في الذكر وفضيلته
1769 – حدثني جبريل قال: يقول الله تعالى: لا إله إلا الله حصني فمن دخله أمن من عذابي.
(ابن عساكر عن علي).


Habitants of this habit form a collective:

There is no anxiety of desolation for the inhabitants of Lā ‘Ilāha ‘Il-lal-lāh (No deity other than Allah) in death, in grave or in resurrection. As if I (Muhammad) am watching over them while the blast goes off (The doom’s day blast) while shaking off the dust off their heads and saying: Al-Hanmdu Lil-lāhi (Perpetual Praise for Allah)—Al-Ladhi (That Which)—took away the sorrow from us [35:34].

الجامع الصغير. الإصدار 3,22 – لجلال الدين السيوطي
المجلد الخامس >> باب: حرف اللام
7620- ليس على أهل “لا إله إلا الله” وحشة في الموت، ولا في القبور، ولا في النشور. كأني أنظر إليهم عند الصيحة ينفضون رؤوسهم من التراب يقولون: “الحمد لله الذي أذهب عنا الحزن”
التخريج (مفصلا): الطبراني في الكبير عن ابن عمر
تصحيح السيوطي: ضعيف


As you do not recall ever being within the habitat of the womb, you also suffer from amnesia each time upon exiting from the habitat of Tahlil; in this bio-psychological form you cannot remember much of that habitat, though it is the humanity’s most true form of existence.

Dhikr(Divine Remembrance) is a spiritual practice to remember beyond the bio-psychological amnesia of birth.

Most notable reality of this habitat is that foul deeds cannot enter it, each and every human being can live in this habitat and their sins will not be allowed inside i.e. flawless.
الجامع الصغير. الإصدار 3,22 – لجلال الدين السيوطي
المجلد السادس >> باب: حرف لا
9703- “لا إله إلا الله”: لا يسبقها عمل، ولا تترك ذنبا
التخريج (مفصلا): ابن ماجة عن أم هانئ
تصحيح السيوطي: ضعيف
Allah firmly establishes those who believe with a Moveless Speech within the life of this world and the world after’ [14:27]

يُثَبِّتُ اللّهُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ بِالْقَوْلِ الثَّابِتِ فِي الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا وَفِي الآخِرَة

The ‘Moveless Speech’ is Tahlil, it is unaffected with any deeds the human might do, whether good or evil, untarnished by any sin, on the contrary it affects the sins, washes them away.

Imam Razi

Al-Isma’ Allah-i Al-Husna

Thabit (‘Moveless Speech’) means this habitat is untouched by human deeds i.e. human piety or evil does not increase or decrease Tahlil.

Habitat of Tahlil has may names, one particular one:

Al-Qaul-i Al-Sadid (The Barrier Verbiage)
The exegetes believe that Tahlil is a barrier that prevents all evil and doubt to enter the hearts of her speakers.

33:70 O you who have attained to faith! Remain conscious of God, and [always] speak Al-Qaul-i Al-Sadid (The Barrier Verbiage) i.e. Tahlil

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اتَّقُوا اللَّهَ وَقُولُوا قَوْلًا سَدِيدً


Another name:

Kalimat Al-Baqiya (The Everlasting Word)
[43:28] And he left it as a Word to endure among those who came after him, that they may turn back (to Allah).

وَجَعَلَهَا كَلِمَةً بَاقِيَةً فِي عَقِبِهِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَرْجِعُونَ

This habitat is for you to everlast, while your body and molecular mind withers, the sanctity of this habitat is rest assured for your true existence in multi-verse.

No matter what happens to you here on this planet, no matter what of good and foul you do, you can always return to the safety and sanctity of the habitat of Tahlil.

Imam Razi points at the event of Pharaoh threatening his magicians,  who were bedazzled by the Light of the Tahlil emanating from Moses peace upon him, as they submitted without his permission and did not fear the consequences of prolonged gory reprisal that awaited them:

Once exposed to the sight of the Habitat of Tahlil the concerns and anxieties of this world vanish.

For those who seek the secrets of cosmos:

Maqālid-u Al-Samawāti Wa  Al-Ardh (Keys to the Heavens and Earth)
[39:63] To Hu (IT, Him) belong the keys of the heavens and the earth: and those who reject the Signs of Allah, it is they who will be in loss.

لَهُ مَقَالِيدُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَالَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا بِآيَاتِ اللَّهِ أُوْلَئِكَ هُمُ الْخَاسِرُونَ

The foundation of cosmos is upon Tauhid (Divine Oneness), thus within habitat of Tahlil keys to secrets of cosmos readily available for whom Allah wishes to bestow.


© 2017-2002,  Dara O Shayda

On Divine Origin of Randomness

In European Thoughts of Middle Ages and even in the modern Western Thoughts of most of us, Randomness is equated with un-Godly characteristics!

In other words, Random systems are far away from any God, and concept of God cannot contain Random systems. After all God is perfect and thus anything God makes has to be perfect, orderly systems are perfect, yet Random systems are imperfect.

Western antique concept of Perfectness originates from perfectly shaped and polished structures in opulent buildings of the affluent, or posh attire perfectly garmented snugged to the shape of the body, or Consonant notes pleasing to the ears; symmetric patterns indicate Perfectness; asymmetric patterns render imperfections.

“Scheiner, a Jesuit mathematician at the university of Ingolstadt (near Augsburg), wished to preserve the perfection of the Sun and the heavens and therefore argued that sunspots were satellites of the Sun.”


To those European the concept of perfection for the Sun was that of a perfect disk or globe and therefore sunspots were troubling, if God made the Sun, then it has to be  perfect since God himself is prefect, then how could there be random smudges on the surface of the Sun?

Today most of us with Western education and exposure to Western media and ideals suffer from the same antiquated concepts of Perfectness.

In all these there is a single central theme: man walks in his village, man fathoms what is perfect what is not, man imposes the concept on God and God’s creation. “God has to be like this (my idea) or God is not perfect and therefore there is no God”.

This lack of perfection has been projected into stochastic or randomized systems i.e. a deterministic system is perfect, a non-deterministic system (subject to randomness) is imperfect.

God CAN only make deterministic systems or there is no God whatsoever, non-deterministic systems are far from God.

These European thoughts have plagued even the most brilliant of their scientists:

In 1943, Einstein, in conversation with biographer William Hermann, concerning what is real and exists versus what is but mental constructs, stated the following: [2]

Nature doesn’t know chance, it operates on mathematical principles. As I have said so many times, God doesn’t play dice with the world.”




Note the rendition: God is also white European male look alike, just a little bit bigger. Therefore it is the White European Male who determines the concepts of perfection and what is Godly and what is not and even if there is a God.

Those who have studied the Kolmogorov Complexity Theory, could rebuttal:

ONLY God can throw a dice!

To build a machine to throw a random dice or software algorithm to generate random number sequences is indeed an impossibly hard task, and indeed beyond our known engineering capabilities and theoretical understandings.

Random Mutations  or Natural Selection are  traditionally key proofs for lack of God in nature, since obviously the observed underlying processes of nature are Randomized.

However one understands that it is impossible for electro-mechanical machines designed by a human mind, without tapping into the surrounding entropy, to algorithmically generate Random systems, this Rahi (Author) extends the concept that:

“ONLY God can role a dice”

i.e. create Randoms systems.

Therefore Randomness or being non-deterministic is actually Divine, it is the artifact of a Super Being’s doings, not of a human endeavour! Therefore Random Mutations or Natural Selections are something of God’s doing, indicating the performance of a super-task by a super-being .

In 1994, Stephen Hawking, during a debate with Roger Penrose, at the Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge, about whether or not Einstein was wrong in his God does not throw dice statement, gave his opinion that:

“Consideration of black holes suggests, not only that God does play dice, but that he sometimes confuses us by throwing them where they can’t be seen.”





These are the weaknesses of thoughts in our Western education:

  1. Random systems are imperfect
  2. Deterministic systems are perfect and God only makes Deterministic systems or infer there is no God!
  3. Random systems are subject to probabilities and statistics, thus afar from God
  4. Random systems are chaotic, God and Chaos cannot mix

Remark 1: Random systems do not require a priori probabilities per Kolmogorov Complexity. The latter is an achievement in understanding Random systems free of any probability measures.

Remark 2: Chaotic system could rise from deterministic system, not all Chaotic systems are Random.

Randomness the foundation of Water-based life:

The Random jitter of water molecules in the cells of all living beings is the key source of molecular motility and energy. There is no water-based life unless there is Randomness of water molecules. The Perfectness of life has foundation on Randomness.

Randomness the foundation of Neuronal-mind:

Neuronal Noise  is the very foundation of our molecular minds. The operations of our minds are not possible unless upon the Random foundation of Neuronal signals.



Randomness is the endeavour of Super Being performing Super-Tasks.


© 2016-2002,  Dara O Shayda


رود,مريد,مراد: Wanting, Wanter, Wanted

Lisan Al-Arab

Ibn Manzour

Ra-Wa-Da: verb for seeking, as in someone sent forward to seek something for his or her own folk e.g. scouting for pastures.
لسان العرب
ابن منظور
الرَّوْدُ: مصدر فعل الرائد، والرائد: الذي يُرْسَل في التماس النُّجْعَة وطلب الكلإِ، والجمع رُوَّاد مثل زائر وزُوَّار. وفي حديث عليّ، عليه السلام، في صفة الصحابة، رضوان الله عليهم أَجمعين: يدخلون رُوَّاداً ويخرجون أَدلة أَي يدخلون طالبين للعلم ملتمسين للحلم من عنده ويخرجون أَدلة هُداة للناس. وأَصل الرائد الذي يتقدّم القوم يُبْصِر لهم الكلأَ ومساقط الغيث؛ ومنه حديث الحجاج في صفة الغيث: وسمعت الرُّوَّاد يدعون إِلى ديارتها أَي تطلب الناس إِليها، وفي حديث وفد عبد القيس: إِنَّا قوم رادَةٌ؛ وهو جمع رائد كحاكة وحائك، أَي نرود الخير والدين لأَهلنا




Add to this “seeking” components of friendship and patronage.
مفردات ألفاظ القرآن.- للأصفهاني
كتاب الراء
-الرود: التردد في طلب الشيء برفق، يقال: راد وارتاد، ومنه: الرائد، لطالب الكلإ، وراد الإبل في طلب الكلإ، وباعتبار الرفق قيل: رادت الإبل في مشيها ترود رودانا، ومنه بني المرود. وأرود يرود: إذا رفق، ومنه بني رويد


This word applies to Allah and to human kind, with different connotations:

In case of Allah it has the meaning of “will” and “volition”, Allah wanting something to be certain ways and wanting it not to be certain other ways:


2:185. Allah wills that you shall have ease, and does not will you to suffer hardship

يريد الله بكم اليسر ولا يريد بكم العسر


33:17. Say: “Who is there that could keep you away from God if it be ITs/His will to harm you, or if it be ITs/His will to show you mercy?”

إن أراد بكم سوءا أو أراد بكم رحمة

For people to mean pining and yearning:

3:145. And if one desires the rewards of this world, We shall grant him thereof; and if one desires the rewards of the life to come, We shall grant him thereof;

وَمَن يُرِدْ ثَوَابَ الدُّنْيَا نُؤْتِهِ مِنْهَا وَمَن يُرِدْ ثَوَابَ الآخِرَةِ نُؤْتِهِ مِنْهَا

In the context of Qur’an this word always appeared as verb.

In terminologies of Sufis this word appears as verbal noun as well, and does so in two versions:


Murid: Wanter seeker wanting seeking Allah.


Murad: Wanted i.e. wanted drawn and chosen to be loved  by Allah.

The origin in the Qur’an:

42:13. Allah draws unto ITself/Himself who IT/He wills, and guides unto ITself/Himself anyone who turns unto IT/Him.

اللَّهُ يَجْتَبِي إِلَيْهِ مَن يَشَاء وَيَهْدِي إِلَيْهِ مَن يُنِيبُ

لسان العرب
ابن منظور
وقوله: وكذلك يَجْتَبِيك ربك؛ قال الزجاج: معناه وكذلك يختارك ويصطفيك، وهو مشتق من جبيت الشيءَ إذا خلصته لنفسك، ومنه: جبيت الماء في الحوض. قال الأَزهري: وجِبايةُ الخراج جمعه وتحصيله مأْخوذ من هذا

Murid is seeking by personal volition, Murad is sought, Murid is a wanter, Murad is wanted, Murid is a lover, Murad is a beloved.

Imagine Murid as iron, fashioned into an arrow or projectile or rocket or vehicle  to willfully cast and roam around to seek and scout and find.

Imagine Murad also as iron, not fashioned into any form, yet drawn by a magnet, completely free of control of where it is pulled towards.

Imagine the engineer or the designer who shapes the iron (Murid) into a projectile or a vehicle i.e. a teacher or mentor or Sheikh. To design and guide to a purposeful destination, zigzagging meandering.

Imagine Murad as unformed unattended to and yet moving towards the source of the magnetic force, with most precise accuracy.

Imagine Murid reaching the desired destination and all is done and over with. No residue.

Imagine Murad reaching the source of the magnetic force, and thus magnetized itself, and all that  comes close  to Murad , in lesser force, also magnetized, and those who come close to them in turn, lesser and lesser, magnetized to pull others, even long after Murad is gone!

This residue left by Murad is Ka:


Irfan1: Ka


Za-Li-Ka: Za is the single letter meaning ‘this’ and ‘Li’ extends the reach of ‘this’ to a farther distance i.e. ‘that over there’ and Ka (you) for Muhammad peace be upon him. This is the Prophetic Presence of Muhammad, not his biological presence, he is within the state of Insan Kamil (Perfected Eye) and stares from there (Malakut the realm of spirits) to here (Mulk the corporeal realm) to see that either Allah or humanity or both are witness over the incredible gifts and generosity of Allah…


Lisanul Arab 

Ibn Manzour Afriqi

If you decide to address someone you say so by the usage of Ka in any of the following varieties:
1.    Ti-I-Ka: Ti (This female target) I (Near) Ka (for/regarding/referencing/addressing you)
2.    Ti-L-Ka: Ti (This female target) L (Far) Ka (you)
3.    Ta-Alif-Ka: Ta (This female target?) Alif (Near?) Ka (you)
4.    Ta-L-Ka: Ta (This male target?) L (Far) ka (you)
5.    Ta-Ni-Ka: Ta (This-two target) Ni (?) Ka (you)
6.    Ta-Na-Ka: Ta (This-two target) Na (?) Ka (you)
7.    ‘U-La-‘I-Ka: ‘U (Those plural target) La (?) ‘I (?) Ka (you)
8.    ‘U-La-Ka: ‘U (Those plural target) La (?) Ka (you)
9.    ‘U-La-Li-Ka: ‘U (Those plural target) La (?) Li (Far) Ka (you)

Ka (‘K’ sound in Arabic) addresses a male Ka (K as in cat) or female Ki (K as in kit). The prefix before Ka e.g. Ti or Ta specifies the gender of the target or ‘U specifying the plural attribute of the target. (Dara: The ‘L’ sounds deal with the field of targeting i.e. near or far)

لسان العرب  ابن منظور
فإِن خاطَبْتَ جئتَ بالكاف فقلت تِيكَ وتِلْكَ وتاكَ وتَلْكَ، بفتح التاء، وهي لغة رديئةٌ، وللتثنية تانِكَ وتانِّكَ، بالتشديد، والجمع أُولَئِكَ وأُولاكَ وأُولالِكَ، فالكاف لمن تخاطبه في التذكير والتأْنيث والتثنية والجمع، وما قَبْلَ الكافِ لمن تُشِيرُ إِليه في التذكير والتأْنيث والتثنية والجمع،


Ka (‘K’ sound in Arabic) is a Harf (Alphabetized Divine Word), indeed a prehension, prehending the actual existence of an entity in Qidam (Space of all Actualities) i.e. prehending the Primordia of some object in this potential world.

In this potential world we deal with the potentialities of an entity, however we are able to prehend the Primordia of an entity in Qidam in its actualized existence free of all potentialities.

The Subjective-form of this prehension is felt as a Presence i.e. we feel something exists, kind of close by, though we may not have the ability to see the entity or observe the entity with any instrumentation but within us there is a strong feeling of that object being near though out of sight.

Divine Origins
Ka is originally attributed to Allah: Allahumma (O our Lord) La (For) Ka (You) Al-Hamdu (All Perpetual Praise) or Labbay (I am ready to serve/comply) Ka (You).


كنز العمال الإصدار 2.01 – للمتقي الهندي
المجلد الثاني >> الفصل السادس في جوامع الأدعية
3653- اللهم لك الحمد شكرا ولك المن فضلا.
(طب ك عن كعب بن عجرة).


زيادة الجامع الصغير، والدرر المنتثرة، الإصدار 2.05 – للإمام السيوطي
كتاب “زيادة الجامع الصغير”، للسيوطي >> حرف اللام
2387- لبيك اللهم لبيك إنما الخير خير الآخرة.

As with the other personal pronouns, Allah endowed the humanity with the gift of these personal pronouns—in infinitely vitiated forms—so that we are able to communicate with Allah and using the same verbiage to communicate with other humans.

Here again, although we cannot behold Allah, yet we are fully able to feel the subjective-form of our prehension of Allah’s existence in Qidam (Space of all Actualities) i.e. the Divine Presence.

 Irfan2: Seeking no highness over people
 The most important principle for being a Murid, the most obvious attribute of being a Murad, is “lack of seeking” control over people, subjugating them, taking their lands and properties and assuming nobility over them, no lesser controlling their minds!
28:38.  That realm in the hereafter Ka (for you Muhammad), We grant it [only] to those who do not seek to exalt themselves on earth, nor yet to spread corruption: for the future belongs to the God-conscious.

تِلْكَ الدَّارُ الْآخِرَةُ نَجْعَلُهَا لِلَّذِينَ لَا يُرِيدُونَ عُلُوًّا فِي الْأَرْضِ وَلَا فَسَادًا وَالْعَاقِبَةُ لِلْمُتَّقِينَ

Note usage of Ka, this verse carries the residual presence of Murad (Beloved-ness) of Muhammad to this date, to the end of this world, though his biological body gone, his presence is felt, like the pull of the original magnet is felt through consecutive magnetizations:

21:107. And [thus, O Prophet,] We have sent Ka (you) as [an evidence of Our] grace towards all the worlds.

وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَاكَ إِلَّا رَحْمَةً لِّلْعَالَمِينَ

And this Presence carries an Irfan: Do not seek highness over people if you are to become Murad, while your Self carried to the other realm of spirits.


© 2016-2002,  Dara O Shayda

Ishara: Death



See Also:


Imagine pointing at the moon, using finger, muscles and bones of your arm and hand while associating some language with this pointing and as such make others see the moon. For example you point and say: look at the disk-like shape, different crescents for different days of the year, gray spots like hills and valleys. Or you point and say nothing! All the same, thoughts and feelings conjured within your audience.

You do not issue anything of the moon’s true nature and essence, for it is 380,000 kilometers away, out of reach, however in this life we have the endowment of the Ishara faculty , a pointing tool to render something about a remote target.

People look along your arm and hand and finger consequently could place the words in the context of the disk-like stellar object, without traveling to the moon nor becoming an astronomer!

Your words alone have no meaning, your hand and finger alone have no meaning, their inexorable combination does. And does render thoughts which have nothing do with the arm hand finger and acoustics of your voice.

Similar to moon, we point at the word/concept of Death, as was used by Allah, we cannot reach to Allah and we  cannot understand the nature and essence of Death, but we can make Ishara at Death, we can point at the Death and others looking along the vector of this pointing cognize a new thought.

Call that Vectorial Thought or Ishara.

Isarah 1: Apoptosis

Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπόπτωσις “falling off”) is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms. Biochemical events lead to characteristic cell changes (morphology) and death. These changes include blebbing, cell shrinkage, nuclear fragmentation, chromatin condensation, chromosomal DNA fragmentation, and global mRNA decay. Between 50 and 70 billion cells die each day due to apoptosis in the average human adult. For an average child between the ages of 8 and 14, approximately 20 billion to 30 billion cells die a day.




What we call Death, is actually a terrific systemic ensemble of processes and highly specialized molecules and atomic structures, with unfathomable parallel operating mechanism, without which the life would not be possible:

Ishara 2. Life only possible upon Death

Cancer is immortality of a single cell, which wrecks havoc in all living organisms:



Make believe that above Ishara 1-2 are arm hand and finger pointing and the words in the video what you say to people around you to render the concept of Death i.e. pointing at Death.

In English language of Jews and Christians the word death simply means cessation of life:

A permanent cessation of all vital functions :  the end of life



In the language of Qur’an:

67:2. Al-Ladhi (That Which, Allah) created Death and Life

ٱلَّذِي خَلَقَ ٱلْمَوْتَ وَٱلْحَيَاةَ


Death is a designed engineered innovated being, like any other designs engineering and innovations:

Lisan Al-Arab

Ibn Manzour

The Death is a creation from creativity of Allah the Lofty
لسان العرب
الأَزهري عن الليث: المَوْتُ خَلْقٌ من خَلق اللهِ تعالى.


In other words Death is not an abstract concept marking the cessation of life, it is an entity which has processes and designs, as does life.

In the verse above Death is mentioned prior to Life, and that was a source of much discussions amongst the grammarians and exegetes of Qur’an:



The antecedence of Death to Life might mean:

  1. Death in this life, life in the Life After
  2. Death is a Substratum upon which resides Life

تفسير فتح القدير/ الشوكاني (ت 1250 هـ)

وقيل: المراد الموت في الدنيا، والحياة في الآخرة. وقدّم الموت على الحياة؛ لأن أصل الأشياء عدم الحياة، والحياة عارضة لها.


This idea of Death as the cornerstone of life namely the Programmed Cell Death  truly found relative validity around 1970s! So even within the Western Scientific thoughts the concept of Death as the Substratum for life is quite novel and afresh.

Prior to the verse above Allah is mentioned as the Blest who created Death and Life i.e. Death as is Life a true blessing from The Divine Blest One.

Death is blessing, without Programmed Cell Death, for example you would not have toes or fingers!

We would have been hugest blobs of useless organic matter without purpose and functionality.

Therefore Death is a blessing Allah endowed upon every human being, upon every living being.

We did not infer nor interpret these statements as conclusions, neither does the finger pointing at the moon, we simply pointed at the Death, pointed at the Divine Words thus rendered de novo concepts in mind.

© 2016-2002,  Dara O Shayda

الصلاة: Salat or daily canonical prayers

This is a small write up about Salat:

Ibn ‘Ata

Q: Why is our Salat not acceptable and not up to par?

A: Lack of knowledge:

We are absent minded or bored during the Salat because we are ignorant Muslim worshipers! We Muslims need to learn and we Muslims need to acquire knowledge from deep within (Irfan).

As the Prophet peace be upon him said that there is no Salat without Fatiha, therefore putting 2 and 2 together we can safely infer that if we do not have the knowledge of Fatiha we could  and would not perform Salat properly:

Ansari Tafsir of Fatiha

Father of Rumi a.k.a Baha Walad Tafsir of Fatiha:

Rumi’s Tafsir of Fatiha (collection of poems and sayings):

Qurtubi, Razi, Tabari, Tabatabai, Al-Alusi, Baqli  Tafsirs of Al-Hamd-u








النَّفْس: Nafs (Self)

النَّفْس: Nafs (Self)





لسان العرب
والعرب قد تجعل النَّفْس التي يكون بها التمييز نَفْسَيْن،
وذلك أَن النَّفْس قد تأْمره بالشيء وتنهى عنه

Lisan Al-Arab

Ibn Manzour

Arab calls an entity by which two things are discerned Al-Nafs, for example what inclines a man towards good as opposed to foul i.e. discerns between good and bad.

Remark 1: This Rahi (Author) considers “entity by which” as “structure” i.e. a similarity between objects (spaces) which does similar actions or has similar attributes or behaves similarly.

This structure of Nafs is ubiquitous within every human being, quite similar in operations and attributes regardless of the person’s race or culture or religion.

This structure of Nafs is not limited to discernment between good and evil, but discerning between one’s own Self and others i.e. knowing cognizing that I am not you and you are not me; this discernment is exclusively possible by the instrumentation of this fantastic structure of Nafs. Else we could not find each other as different beings, as winds and eddies have no firm boundaries, as we were in the realm of Spirits wherein we could not be told apart.

Allah innovated most novel innovation called Nafs, a structure (similarity) endued in every human being, so otherwise entangled wind-like spirits could be discerned in the life on this planet:

Wa (Emergent) Nafs (Self) and how (amazingly) she was Sawwa (Engineered to Perfection)

وَنَفْسٍ وَمَا سَوَّاهَا


Structured for the purpose of discernment:

91:8 and how she (Nafs) was imbued with moral failings as well as with piety!

فَأَلْهَمَهَا فُجُورَهَا وَتَقْوَاهَا


This structure much larger than our cosmos! What we feel of our Nafs (Self) is a tiny fragment of the whole structure.

In Qidam (Infinitely Past) we all were like unto  eddies or currents namely spirits, those who loved one another intertwined versus disliked and repelled, and yet therein I could not say “I” and you could not say “you”.



Nafs could be modeled as a Capsule, discerning two regions namely interior vs. exterior.

Inside this Capsule placed your person, outside placed other than you.


33:37. And what you (Muhammad) concealed within your Nafs (Self)

وَتُخْفِي فِي نَفْسِكَ


7:205. And remember your Lord within your Nafs (Self)

وَاذْكُر رَّبَّكَ فِي نَفْسِكَ


20:67 and in his Nafs (Self) Moses became apprehensive.

فَأَوْجَسَ فِي نَفْسِهِ خِيفَةً مُّوسَى


This model extends to Allah as well having a Nafs (Self):

5:116. You know all that is within my (Jesus) Nafs (Self), whereas I know not what is in Your (Allah’s) Nafs(Self).

تَعْلَمُ مَا فِي نَفْسِي وَلاَ أَعْلَمُ مَا فِي نَفْسِكَ


Furthermore the above verses indicate that this Nafs (Self) encapsulates to conceal as well. Therefore the said Capsule of Nafs (Self) has multiple purposes or you might say components.



This Rahi (Author) ensembles the different derivations of the same word to render images and to form feelings within the modern English reader as were conjured within the ancient Arab when such words as Nafs were uttered.




Discerning between two entities.




To have something with one’s Self e.g. within my Self (Nafs) find many questions, I have no knowledge what is with Allah (Allah’s Self Nafs).

5:116. You know all that is within my (Jesus) Nafs (Self), whereas I know not what is in Your (Allah( Nafs(Self).

تَعْلَمُ مَا فِي نَفْسِي وَلاَ أَعْلَمُ مَا فِي نَفْسِكَ




An entity individuates by means of becoming extraordinary priceless and perfected. Allah did not individuate these Selves as discernible entities unless they are, each, in most perfect and distinctly exotic forms.
لسان العرب
هو من المُنافَسَة الرغبة في الشيء والانفرادية، وهو من الشيء النَّفِيسِ الجيد في نوعه




There is no Nafs (Individuated Self) that is begotten (Manfus) except her place in Garden and Fire is pre-written, said the Prophet peace be upon him.

لسان العرب

والمَنْفُوس: المولود. وفي الحديث: ما من نَفْسٍ مَنْفُوسَةٍ إِلا وقد كُتِبَ مكانها من الجنة والنار،
ثعلب: نُفِسَتْ ولداً على فعل المفعول. وورِثَ فلان هذا المالَ في بطن أُمه قبل أَن يُنْفَس أَي يولد.


Begotten as in born from another another Nafs (Self) while maintaining the connection:

لسان العرب

، قال: وسميت النَّفْسُ نَفْساً لتولّد النَّفَسِ منها واتصاله بها،


This opens horizons for new thoughts:

Nafs (Self) as a complex multi-cellular structure which encapsulates and She begets and begotten.



Nafs gendered as female for the said structure that discerns between two entities, Nafs gendered as male to indicate human being or group of humans:

لسان العرب

وقالوا ثلاثة أَنْفُس يُذكِّرونه لأَن النَّفْس عندهم إنسان فهم يريدون به الإِنسان،


In the language of Arab the nouns and verbs are gendered i.e. shortest form of a noun or a verb is called Male and the Female the longer form of the noun or verb with suffix of Ta-Ha


or Ha


Remark 2:This terminology of male vs. female noun and verb configurations have nothing to with sexual organ nor reproductive physiology. It does not indicate power and authority in case of male and weakness and inferiority in case of female (as propagated by the Arab male).

Shortest form in terms of number of letters is male gendered, and longer forms female.

So Ruh (Soul, Spirit) is Male gendered and annexed to it the Nafs (Self) for discernment which is gendered as female, since it is the longer form due to the annexation. See Also:

However if Nafs is male gendered then it refers to human being.


Nearby Respiration



Imagine being in a dark room, Nafas (Respiration) of another Nafs is felt while she could not be seen, yet we sense the breathing and we feel she is there quite close.

If applied to Allah indicates removal of hardship by means of the Nearness of Allah’s Divine Nafs (Self).


لسان العرب

وقوله في الحديث: بُعِثْتُ في نَفَس الساعة أَي بُعِثْتُ وقد حان قيامُها وقَرُبَ إِلا أَن اللَّه أَخرها قليلاً فبعثني في ذلك النَّفَس، وأَطلق النَّفَس على القرب، وقيل: معناه أَنه جعل للساعة نَفَساً كَنَفَس الإِنسان، أَراد: إِني بعثت في وقت قريب منها، أَحُس فيه بنَفَسِها كما يَحُس بنَفَس الإِنسان إذا قرب منه، يعني بعثت في وقتٍ بانَتْ أَشراطُها فيه وظهرت علاماتها؛ ويروى: في نَسَمِ الساعة، وسيأْتي ذكره والمُتَنَفِّس: ذو النَّفَس.


From this terminology came Nafas Rahmani or Rahman’s Respiration which indicates wind-like or something flow-like on this planet that removes the hardship from people and provides them with relief.


لسان العرب

والنَّفَس: الفَرَج من الكرب. وفي الحديث: لا تسبُّوا الريح فإِنها من نَفَس الرحمن، يريد أَنه بها يُفرِّج الكربَ ويُنشِئ السحابَ ويَنشر الغيث ويُذْهب الجدبَ، وقيل: معناه أَي مما يوسع بها على الناس، وفي الحديث: أَنه، صلى اللَّه عليه وسلم، قال: أَجد نَفَس ربكم من قِبَلِ اليمن، وفي رواية: أَجد نَفَس الرحمن؛ يقال إِنه عنى بذلك الأَنصار لأَن اللَّه عز وجل نَفَّس الكربَ عن المؤمنين بهم، وهم يَمانُونَ لأَنهم من الأَزد، ونَصَرهم بهم وأَيدهم برجالهم، وهو مستعار من نَفَس الهواء الذي يَرُده التَّنَفُّس إِلى الجوف فيبرد من حرارته ويُعَدِّلُها، أَو من نَفَس الريح الذي يَتَنَسَّمُه فيَسْتَرْوِح إِليه، أَو من نفَس الروضة وهو طِيب روائحها فينفرج به عنه،


Ishara (Vectorial Pointing)

Molecular Self(Membrane Capsule): Liposome

A liposome is an artificially-prepared spherical vesicle composed of a lamellar phase lipid bilayer. The liposome can be used as a vehicle for administration of nutrients and pharmaceutical drugs.

A liposome encapsulates a region of aqueous solution inside a hydrophobic membrane; dissolved hydrophilic solutes cannot readily pass through the lipids. Hydrophobic chemicals can be dissolved into the membrane, and in this way liposome can carry both hydrophobic molecules and hydrophilic molecules. To deliver the molecules to sites of action, the lipid bilayer can fuse with other bilayers such as the cell membrane, thus delivering the liposome contents. By making liposomes in a solution of DNA or drugs (which would normally be unable to diffuse through the membrane) they can be (indiscriminately) delivered past the lipid bilayer. A liposome does not necessarily have lipophobic contents, such as water, although it usually does.

Clear partition of interior vs. exterior:



Q: Are there any examples of entities without Self?



Many Physics experiments fail to identify the individual electrons i.e. there is no way to fix one electron and tell it apart from all other. In cases that is possible the original system ceases. Therefore there is indication that Electrons might not have the concept of the Self as we do and understand.



Clouds are incredibly large entities teeming with microbial life and operations. It is now suspected that these microbial forms operate as  a collective to cause rain or snow or hail, or to stop such nucleation of the water vapor, while they transport themselves to the crust of the earth and ride upwards back to the cloud.

This life-form of the Cloud stretches many thousands of kilometers and yet difficult to say where it starts and where it ends, what is a sub-part, which part is this cloud and which part is another cloud.

This Rahi (Author) calls these clouds as Dis-Organisms!

Organism is compact with well-known boundaries of its being, Dis-Organism is as alive though non-compact i.e. has no discernible boundaries for being.

Therefore we model clouds as Dis-Orgnismans without Nafs (Self).


© 2016-2002,  Dara O Shayda