Category Archives: Grammar

Grammar of language of Arab

Bismillahi vs. Billahi

Salaam Shakir, you had asked for the difference between Billahi and Bismillahi:

Research source: Ma’ani Al-Huruf by Rommani

Remark: This is a short memorandum to address the difference but a more detailed treatise could be written if there is interest. The research is quite involved and requires much effort to present.

A. Ba sound in Billahi indicates a Qasam (Oath)

B. Ba sound Bismillahi is a declaration of commencement a form of Dhikr (Remembrance)

The two differ significantly.

Qasam (Oath) is uttered when the speaker needs to render the veracity of a statement made by him i.e. immense personal belief in that statement (‘Aqida firm belief), and do so by mention of another statement which is held dear/noble/true by the listener or by himself e.g. On my children’s soul!

Therefore Billahi is a Qasam (Oath) you use it when you want to tell me convince me something you believe 100% or something you will do or did for real, and you mention Allah’s name after the Ba sound, then I know you are telling the truth.

On the other hand, Bismi is a standing phrase the Arab used to commence an offering e.g. offer something to a noble or idol by using Ba sound to commence the offering juxtaposing the name of the noble or idol after Ba sound, so he would say Bismi so and so I offer  this sacrifice… commencing slaughtering the animal  or bring some gift closer and so on.

Since the advent of the Prophethood of Muhammad peace be upon him, the term is almost exclusively used for Allah’s names in particular Rahman and Rahim, thus no idols or nobles names allowed.





Grammar States

Grammar States

Discussion   Join


1.  I’rāb (Auditory Love) & Mu’rab (Auditory Beloved) 
2.  Tertiary States and Phonemes (Sounds)
The Role of Enhanced Breathing Control
Speech Phones are a Replication Code
3.  Haraka (Oral Movement)
         State of Raf’ (Elevation)
State of Jarr (Being Tugged)
State of Nasb (Outer-Boundary)

4.  Mubtada (Beginn ing) & Khabar (Information)
5.  Why were Hamza, Ya, Ta and Nun prefixed to the present/future verbs?
David’s Divine Oboe
The Musical Primate
6.  Why is the past tense verb based upon Haraka (Oral Movement)?
7.  Why are the past tense verbs based upon the Haraka (Oral Movement) of Fat-ha (‘a’ as in ‘cat’)?
8.  Examples:

See Also:
Full Text of Asrar Al-Arabia (Secrets of Arabic) by Al-Anbari 


When a man loves his woman or a father is in love with his child, upon their sorrowful departure the recordings of their voices serve him as acoustic beloveds as though they were fashioned again alive, but this time they are made up of sounds and words, instead of flesh and limbs!

Their sounds echo within his ears, neurologically pulsed within the motor centres of his brain, when suddenly his arms motion with warmth to embrace a long gone beloved, and yet it is an acoustic beloved more loved and yearned for than the first biological one! A beloved made up of waves of air and yet more concrete than the one made from flesh!

Just the same, every member of human-kind saw the Lord of The Multiverse and now infinite time intervals have gone by and we have not seen a trace of That Divine Beauty, but upon hearing the Inflections at the very end of the Divine Words, a Divine Beloved is sculpted from the sounds and words, a beloved more loved than any other we can fathom, present and ready to be loved forever, ceaselessly, and for every member of our kind indiscriminately.

Azizam (My dearest) listen intently to the ‘o’ sound at the of the words Al-HayyO Al-QayyumO [3:2] when an ever-living immovable unwavering Beloved appears, to your right and to your left, and for as long as the ending ‘o’ sounds are echoing in your ears that ever-living is with you uninterruptedly.

And upon your own reciting of these Divine Inflections all that you are evanesces and your Oral Movements, a creature in and of itself, voyages speedily into a far away universe, like unto the waves of air travelling the atmosphere of earth, you that is no longer you will wave through the Divine Atmosphere of Ever-living Ever-hearing, while the muscle and cartilage and bone are left here to wither upon this earth.

1.  I’rāb (Auditory Love) & Mu’rab (Auditory Beloved)

When Moses was chasing after the source of the light in the desert night, the burning bush, he heard sounds that inescapably made him fall in love with someONE out of sight, a maddening feral love that robbed his mind of all speech except the articulation: ‘Let me look at You!’ [7:143] (when in the mountain).

وَلَمَّا جَاءَ مُوسَى لِمِيقَاتِنَا وَكَلَّمَهُ رَبُّهُ قَالَ رَبِّ أَرِنِي أَنْظُرْ إِلَيْكَ

In the language of the Arab ‘Desinential Inflections’ (I’rab) are the sounds at the end of the words, which change according to tense and case. These sounds are:

1.    Prelinguistic
2.    Precognitive

They serve the purpose of making the words become auditory beloveds:

From ‘Secrets of Arabic’,
by Al-Anbari:

“These sounds at the end of the words are called I’rab for they are Verbal Mu’rab (Beloved), i.e. they cause the word to be loved by the listener; as the Arab says, “Woman U’rūb (From I’rab)” if she has become a beloved for her husband. Similarly Allah said: 56:37 ‘Uruban (Beloved (by nature)), i.e. beloveds for their husbands.

عُرُبًا أَتْرَابًا

Therefore what makes a speech become a Mu’rab (Auditory Beloved) for the listener is called I’rab (Auditory Love).”

Azizat (Your Dearest Beloved) added inflections at the end of the Divine Words, so that even if Azizam (you my dearest) did not understand the meanings, you could still hear the sound of the Divine Love and move towards ITs direction, hence the sounds are precognitive. And again Zibāy-e Āsemāni (That Cosmic Beauty) added the inflections so that even the newborn is able to receive ITs love and blessings, hence the sounds are prelinguistic.  And finally when you go to the grave of someone whom you loved so much, s/he hears these inflections as a sent-love from you.

Listen! These inflections are placed there to give you word-less (Prelinguistic) love for a Divine Beloved above and beyond all intellects, hence precognitive loving vis-à-vis prelinguistic phonemes.

أسرار العربية
المؤلف : كمال الدين أبو البركات عبد الرحمن بن أبي سعيد الأنباري
باب الإعراب و البناء
إن قال قائل لم سمي الإعراب إعرابا والبناء بناء قيل أما الإعراب ففيه ثلاثة أوجه:إحدها أن يكون سمي بذلك لأنه يبين المعاني مأخوذ من قولهم أعرب الرجل عن حجته إذا بينها ومنه قوله الثيب يعرب عنها لسانها أي يبين ويوضح قال الشاعر – من الطويل –
( وجدنا لكم في آل حم آية تأولها منا تقي ومعرب ) فلما كان الإعراب يعين المعاني سمي إعرابا.والوجه الثاني أن يكون سمي إعرابا لأنه تغير يلحق أو آخر الكلم من قولهم عربت معدة الفصيل إذا تغيرت فإن قيل العرب في قولهم عربت معدة الفصيل معناه الفساد فكيف يكون الإعراب مأخوذا منه قيل معنى قولك أعربت الكلام أي أزلت عربه وهو فساده وصار هذا كقولك أعجمت الكتاب إذا أزلت عجمته وأشكيت الرجل إذا أزلت شكايته و على هذا حمل بعض المفسرين قوله تعالى ( إن الساعة آتية أكاد أخفيها ) أي أزيل خفاءها وهذه الهمزة تسمى همزة السلب

والوجه الثالث أن يكون سمي إعرابا لأن المعرب للكلام كأنه يتحبب إلى السامع باعرابه من قولهم امرأة عروب إذا كانت متحببه إلى زوجها قال الله تعالى ( عربا أترابا ) أي متحببات إلى أزواجهن فلما كان المعرب للكلام كأنه يتحبب إلى السامع بإعرابه سمي إعرابا.

وأما البناء فهو منقول من هذا البناء المعروف للزومه وثبوته فإن قيل فما حد الإعراب والبناء قيل أما الإعراب فحده اختلاف أواخر الكلم باختلاف العوامل لفظا أو تقديرا وأما البناء فحده لزوم أواخر الكلم بحركة أو سكون.


2.  Tertiary States and Phonemes

There are four states for the nouns and verbs in the language of the Arab:

1.    Raf’: ‘o’ sound, as in ‘or’.
2.    Nasb: ‘a’ sound, as in ‘cat’.
3.    Jarr: ‘i’ sound, as in ‘bit’.
4.    Jazm: Soundless.

Without a thorough understanding of these states all attempts to learn the language of the Arab are obstructed.

Unbeknownst to most, these states carry important quanta of Spiritual Knowledge, without cognizance of which the reading of the Divine Words avails but little.

Note: Only the first three have phonemes associated with them, Jazm is soundless. So we might call these the tertiary states.

3. Haraka (Oral Movement)

Haraka means motion; in the case of the grammar it means the sound-producing movements of the mouth, tongue, throat and other surrounding tissues (upper torso, e.g. lungs).

There are three Haraka (Oral Movement) associated with the language of the Arab:

1.    Fat-ha, this the ‘a’ sound, as in ‘cat’; it is obtained when the mouth is open and the tongue and the lips kept still; just like when the doctor pushes your tongue down and says ‘say Ahhh’ and the only sound you can make is this ‘a’, try to say ‘o’ or ‘i’ you can’t.
2.    Kasra, this is the ‘i’ sound, as in ‘bit’; it is obtained when the mouth is open and the tongue is allowed to move but the lips are still and uncurled.
3.    Dhamma, this is the ‘o’ sound, as in ‘or’; it is obtained when the mouth is open and the tongue is allowed to move and the lips are allowed to move, e.g. curled in an ‘o’ shape.

In terms of the complexity of the motions of the mouth-throat area tissues, there is monotonic increase in the complexity of the tissue movement from #1 to #3:

These seemingly simple motions of the lips and tongue, and seemingly obvious and meaningless sounds, are indeed generated by one of the most marvelous molecular inventions, an add-on in humans that the apes and other primates are missing. The purpose of a complete overhaul of human respiratory system and its underlying neural complexity is exclusively for the sake of  prolonged speech:

The Evolution of Human Speech: The Role of Enhanced Breathing Control
School of Life Sciences, Roehampton Institute London

“Based on previously published analyses, these results
demonstrate that there was an increase in thoracic innervation during
human evolution. Possible explanations for this increase include postural
control for bipedalism, increased difficulty of parturition, respiration for
endurance running, an aquatic phase, and choking avoidance. These can all
be ruled out, either because of their evolutionary timing, or because they are
insufficiently demanding neurologically. The remaining possible functional
cause is increased control of breathing for speech.

The main muscles involved in the fine control of human speech breathing
are the intercostals and a set of abdominal muscles which are all thoracically
. Modifications to quiet breathing are essential for modern human
speech, enabling the production of long phrases on single expirations punctuated
with quick inspirations at meaningful linguistic breaks. Other linguistically
important features affected by variation in subglottal air pressure
include emphasis of particular sound units, and control of pitch and intonation.
Subtle, complex muscle movements, integrated with cognitive factors,
are involved. The vocalizations of nonhuman primates involve markedly less
respiratory control.

Without sophisticated breath control, early hominids would only have been
capable of short, unmodulated utterances, like those of extant nonhuman
primates. Fine respiratory control, a necessary component for fully modern
language, evolved sometime between 1.6 Mya and 100,000 ya.”

Source: Am J Phys Anthropol 109:341–363, 1999.

The following research establishes that the Phones must be encoded with their articulation as opposed to being just sounds our brains are sensitive to. The Phones are then decoded and one of the pieces of information within them is how the motor area in the brain can re-enact the same spoken sound vis-à-vis the oral motions. Take the concept one step further: Indeed these Phones are also encoded with units of spiritual cognizance which allow the listener to articulate i.e. encode spiritual entities within or feel spiritual feelings otherwise unfelt:

Speech phones are a replication code

“Abstract — Our ability to map sound into pronunciation — vocal imitation — is necessary for
vocabulary learning, and so the existence of language. It is also unexplained. Here I show that
speech is imitable due because of the brain’s use of the innate sensitivities of the vertebrate
auditory system for speech motor targets. Their public nature enables speech to transmit
articulation information. These units I suggest closely link with phones, the minimal unit of
speech segmentation. The conjecture that phones function as a replicative code removes five
unexplained anomalies in language science: (i) why nearly eight hundred phones exist but
any language uses only a tiny subset of them (evolutionarily this makes no sense); (ii) why
newborn infants hear phones of all languages; (iii) why animals also hear them; (iv) why the
Wernicke’s and Broca’s areas arose from homologous areas in primates which process
imitation, and why (v) in humans these areas process nonspeech imitation.

Until now, phones have been studied in terms
such as how they transcribe pronunciation, or their
contribution through a ‘motor theory of speech’ to
word identification. I review the literature related
to imitation, and propose instead that phones should
be viewed neurobiologically as the means by which
speech transmits the articulation information used
to map speech into pronunciation.

Speech needs to carry such information otherwise
the brain would find turning overheard words into
vocal movements hard, and possibly impossible. This
is particularly so since vocal imitation imposes tough
information processing constraints.

• First, it requires mapping auditory information
not only into motor movements but movements
which recognizably recreate the original
• Second, this mapping needs to be possible for an
extraordinary variety of potential articulations —
the world’s languages use phones that differ in 13
vocal tract ‘places’ (from the lips to the space
between the vocal cords, the glottis) and do so
through no less than 11 types of movements
(nasals to lateral clicks).
• Third, on top of this variety of phones potentially
needing to be imitated, infants (who must imitate
to learn new vocabulary) face the problem that
they must copy movements made by adults with
very different shaped and sized vocal apparatuses.”

Source: Medical Hypotheses (1998) 50, 167-173
© Harcourt Brace & Co. Ltd 1998

State of Raf’ (Elevation)

Translated from ‘Lisanul Arab’,
by Ibn Manzour Afriqi:


“One of the Divine Names of Allah: Al-Rāfi’ who elevates the believers with happiness and elevates ITs Aulia (Close Friends) with Qurb (Divine Nearness):

58:11 Allah will rise up, to ranks, those of you who believe and who have been granted (Divine) Knowledge

Raf’ is the opposite of fixing or attaching something. It is also the opposite of Khafdh (Lowering),  for all applications of the concepts of lowering or lessening.

Raf’ in ‘I’rab (Science of Inflection) is the Dhamma (‘o’ sound) appended to nouns and verbs. It differs with (opposes) the grammatical states Jarr (Suffix ‘i’ sound, Kasra) and Nasb (Suffix ‘a’ sound, Fat-ha); Mubtada’ (The Beginning) elevates the Khabar (Information) and vice versa, for they help with each other’s elevation.”

Dara: Accumulation of Ilm (Divine Knowledge) or access to inmost inert concealed Ma’refa (Unlearned Knowledge) or prehension of Tauhid (Divine Oneness) glides the servant upwards towards Allah, sometimes with the feeling of felicity and sometimes with the feeling of closeness. The proper way to say this is: Allah makes them glide upwards. The more the servant is lowly, i.e. tied to daily life and personal gains and desires, the more the gliding is hampered.

Note: States of Jarr and Nasb (see below) are all about connections and boundaries while the state of Raf’ is about breaking all connections and trespassing beyond all boundaries.

لسان العرب  ابن منظور
في أَسْماءالله تعالى الرافِعُ: هو الذي يَرْفَعُ المؤْمن بالإِسعاد وأَولياءَه بالتقْرِيب. والرَّفْعُ: ضدّ الوَضْع، رَفَعْته فارْتَفَع فهو نَقيض الخَفْض في كل شيء، رَفَعه يَرْفَعُه رَفْعاً ورَفُع هو رَفاعة وارْتَفَع. والمِرْفَع: ما رُفِع به. وقوله تعالى في صفة القيامة: خافِضةٍ رافِعة؛ قال الزجاج: المعنى أَنها تَخْفِض أَهل المعاصي وتَرْفَع أَهل الطاعة.
والرَّفْعُ في الإِعراب: كالضمّ في البِناء وهو من أَوضاع النحويين، والرَّفعُ في العربية: خلاف الجر والنصب، والمُبْتَدأُ مُرافِع للخبر لأَنَّ كل واحد منهما يَرْفَع صاحبه.

Dara:  It seems that the icon for an elevator is most suited to depict the state of Raf’ (Elevation). Mind you the elevation has gradations and each gradation is a universe all to itself, like the floor-levels of a building, each a space all to itself.

Al-Rahman-u: Dhamma (‘o’ sound at the end of the Rahman) places the Divine Name into the state of Raf’ (Elevation). We can view the concept of elevation in a myriad of ways: Rahman requires complexity of knowledge(s) and cognizance(s) to be attained just as a lofty entity requires gliding if it is to be reached; all else in creation (as the Surah indicates) are mere substances making up the very elevation and gliding necessary to reach Rahman; all we are and all we see around us are nothing but mere steps of elevations for a terrific cosmic glide towards the Rahman; The ‘o’ phoneme at the end of the Rahman  is indicative of the immense quantities of complexity required to reach to this lofty state of the Divine Presence; the lips are to be curled, single expiration is passed from the Fat-ha (‘a’ sound as in ‘cat’) of Al- (the) to the final Dhamma (‘o’ sound) in order to articulate Al-Rahman-u, from the gut muscles to the entire thoracic region via the larynx and pharynx up to the deepest of our cognitive faculties are synchronized and orchestrated to produced the prolonged sound of ‘o’ at the end of the Rahman; now imagine if you continued to expirate the ending ‘o’ sound, that symbolizes the complexities required to form the continuum around us (and within us), from time to space to matter to all that we can observe and the unobservable(s), for all entities to continue being or transporting from one state to another, a Divinely exotic energy-form Mumāsika (from Yumsikuhunna in 67:19) is required that fuels the continuity and all that which is continuous, the very source of this exotic energy-form is the ‘o’ sounding phoneme:

67:19 Do they not observe the bird (single, genus of all flying animals) above them, spreading their wings and folding them in? None can uphold them (plural, all birds) (to continue to fly for millions of years, bird after bird) except Al-Rahman-u

أَوَلَمْ يَرَوْا إِلَى الطَّيْرِ فَوْقَهُمْ صَافَّاتٍ وَيَقْبِضْنَ مَا يُمْسِكُهُنَّ إِلَّا الرَّحْمَنُ

This Dhamma (‘o’ sound) is a code that is transported from the Malakut (Spiritual Realm) to this world; we hear this code as the sound ‘o’, but with this code is also carried the decoding entities that, once the human being is able to apply them, the actual knowledge behind the phoneme ‘o’ is decoded/uncovered and marvellous new insights from the other universe is rendered available in this universe in order that the human heart and mind may glide aloft and upwards.

The latter makes each human being a Divine Translator who is able to take Spiritual Knowledge and code/encode them into sounds and letters of alphabets, drawings, thoughts and emotions, software/hardware calculations and theories and so on:

2:33. (Allah) said: O Adam inform them (the angels, with information about themselves, that even they did not know!)

قَالَ يَا آَدَمُ أَنْبِئْهُمْ

All pronouns are in the state of Raf’ i.e. elevated, since they require other entities to be around endowed with cognitive faculties to form societies capable of understanding the concept of personal pronouns e.g. I, you, we, they, or he, and the latter (hu, he) introduces complexity. In 112:1 Hu/Huwa (IT, He, third person personal pronoun) is thus elevated (by virtue of it’s dhamma, ‘o’ sound) and it is also a Mubtada’ (see below). Mubtada means a (head) part of the sentence, usually the beginning, about which the rest of the sentence gives information or expresses concepts.  Similarly, in English grammar there is ‘subject’ and ‘predicate’; mubtada’ is subject, and khabar is the predicate, the information.  Here, to represent mubtada’ (beginning, subject) we have given the ideogram of a camcorder, i.e. mubtada (beginning) it is like a video source, into which the rest of the sentence feeds its Khabar (information, predicate), or in the sense that the rest of the sentence is the broadcast of the video!

In the case of 112:1 (Qul Huwa Allahu Ahad, Say IT/He is Allah, the One), the word Huwa (IT, He) is a source but has no broadcasting, in contrast to the word Allah which has information about Huwa (IT), broadcast in the form of Ahad (being one) and Samad (being the master of all) i.e. this information is broadcast optical-like Nur (Divine Light). This lack of broadcast gives this source Huwa (Mubtada’) a unique type: knowledge and cognizance of the Hu is something very special – not a public affair, but a unique gnosis only for the very gifted, who are close to Allah.

Ibn Arabi
Kitab (Book) of Alif

“For that matter, the Jews asked Muhammad, peace be upon him: Tell us the Nasab (Origin) of your Lord, therefore Allah revealed: Say Huwa (is) Allah Ahad (One) 112:1” they did not say “describe” or “characterize” indeed they asked for the Nasab (Origin).”

Therefore the ideograms above that show the camera sources and broadcasters, as a collective, are describing a Nasab (Origination) rather than providing an explanation.

رسائل ابن عربي
كتاب الألف
فقال اليهود لمحمد عليه السلام  انسب لنا ربك فأنزل الله تعالى: قل هو الله أحد
فجاء بالنسب و لم يقولوا صف و لا انعت


State of Jarr (Being Tugged)

Jaarr & Majrur


The messenger ‘of’ Allah or ‘in’ the name of Allah or ‘by’ Allah or ‘towards’ Allah, are possible and correct sentences because Allah has allowed for an entity which we recognize in lingual and geometrical renditions, to be in relationship to Allah!  Similarly, ‘of’ in a vitiated form, e.g.“hat ‘of’ Dara”, allows for such relationships and associations between humans and other entities.

State of Nasb (Outer-Boundary)


The above concepts of boundaries and the balloon representation have been adopted from the below, the ancient writings of the Arab grammarians:

From Lisanul Arab
by Ibn Manzour Afriqi:

“Nasb is placing something some place and raising it (e.g. flag pole vertically).
Nasb is also the outer-limit or outer-boundary.
Stones placed on tops of cliffs or hills to guide by them.
Nasb of Haram, the outer-perimeter of the Haram.
Stones placed around the edge of a pool.
Visual Nasb: Something erected so it is not hidden from the viewer.”

لسان العرب  ابن منظور
والنَّصْبُ: وَضْعُ الشيءِ ورَفْعُه، نَصَبه يَنْصِبُه نَصْباً،
والنَّصِيبةُ والنُّصُبُ: كلُّ ما نُصِبَ، فجُعِلَ عَلَماً
والنَّصْبُ والنُّصُبُ: العَلَم المَنْصُوب. وفي التنزيل العزيز: كأَنهم إِلى نَصْبٍ يُوفِضُونَ؛ قرئ بهما جميعاً، وقيل: النَّصْبُ الغاية، والأَول أَصحّ. قال أَبو إِسحق: مَن قرأَ إِلى نَصْبٍ، فمعناه إِلى عَلَمٍ مَنْصُوبٍ يَسْتَبِقُون إِليه؛
والتَّناصِيبُ: الأَعْلام، وهي الأَناصِيبُ، حجارةٌ تُنْصَبُ على رؤوس القُورِ، يُسْتَدَلُّ بها؛ وقول الشاعر: وَجَبَتْ له أُذُنٌ، يُراقِبُ سَمْعَهـا  بَصَرٌ، كناصِبةِ الشُّجاعِ المُرْصَدِ
يريد: كعينه التي يَنْصِبُها للنظر.
ابن سيده: والأَنْصابُ حجارة كانت حول الكعبة، تُنْصَبُ فيُهَلُّ عليها، ويُذْبَحُ لغير اللّه تعالى.
وأَنْصابُ الحرم: حُدوده.
والنُّصْبةُ: السَّارِية.
والنَّصائِبُ: حجارة تُنْصَبُ حَولَ الحَوض، ويُسَدُّ ما بينها من الخَصاص بالمَدَرة المعجونة، واحدتها نَصِيبةٌ؛ وكلُّه من ذلك.
وقال الليث: النَّصْبُ رَفْعُك شيئاً تَنْصِبُه قائماً مُنْتَصِباً، والكلمةُ المَنْصوبةُ يُرْفَعُ صَوْتُها إِلى الغار الأَعْلى، وكلُّ شيءٍ انْتَصَبَ بشيءٍ فقد نَصَبَهُ. الجوهري: النَّصْبُ مصدر نَصَبْتُ الشيءَ إذا أَقَمته.
والنَّصْبُ: إِقامةُ الشيءِ ورَفْعُه؛ وقوله: أَزَلُّ إِنْ قِيدَ، وإِنْ قامَ نَصَبْ
هو من ذلك، أَي إِن قام رأَيتَه مُشْرِفَ الرأْس والعُنُق.
قال ثعلب: لا يكون النَّصْبُ إِلا بالقيام.
وقال مرة: هو نُصْبُ عَيْني، هذا في الشيءِ القائم الذي لا يَخْفى عليَّ، وإِن كان مُلْقىً؛ يعني بالقائم، في هذه الأَخيرة: الشيءَ الظاهرَ. القتيبي: جَعَلْتُه نُصْبَ عيني، بالضم، ولا تقل نَصْبَ عيني.


4.  Mubtada’ (Beginning) & Khabar (Information)

Khabar (News, Information): This is usually a noun or a phrase issuing some useful information about the Mubtada’ (Beginning). In Arabic grammar, the Khabar can be omitted for a variety of purposes; the Mubtada’ (Beginning) is then left without any explanation.


1.    “Allah is our Lord”: ‘Allah’ is Mubtada’ (Beginning) and ‘our Lord’ is Khabar (News, Information).
2.    “And it is better for you that you fast” [2:184]: ‘that you fast’ is Mubtada’ (Beginning) while ‘it is better for you’ is Khabar (News, Information).

Mubtada’ primary is rendered as a blue camera, secondary a grey camera.
Khabar primary is rendered as a blue broadcast antenna, secondary a grey one.

From ‘Secrets of Arabic’,
by Al-Anbari:

“Mubtada’ is any word that has been unaffected by any grammatical operatives that could have operated on it, either by an explicit or implicit operator. Kana (‘is’ or ‘was’) and its siblings are examples of explicit operators, also Inna (Indeed, whereas, behold, verily) and its siblings and Zanan-tu (I suspected) and its siblings. Implicit operators are similar but they are omitted e.g. ‘When the sky (shall become (Yakuna)) sundered [84:1]’.

Or Mubtada’ is any word that is unaffected by any semantic operators e.g. Ha-Za (This) which is a Mubtada’ or the occurrence of a present/future verb in place of a noun, e.g. I passed by a man (who) is writing,  i.e. present continuous verb ‘is writing’ is in place of the noun ‘writer’. “

Dara: To summarize the above: Mubtada’ is the beginning of a sentence or a phrase which has no grammatical operative acting on it, hence the beginning, e.g. a doer is Mubtada’ since it does things that start the sentences or a pronoun. Mubtada’ is usually a noun about which information is transmitted within the rest of the Arabic sentence. It is always in Raf’ (Nominative) state. The Mubtada’can also be a phrase. For example, “Allah is our Lord”: ‘Allah’ is Mubtada’ (Beginning).

أسرار العربية
المؤلف : كمال الدين أبو البركات عبد الرحمن بن أبي سعيد الأنباري
باب المبتدأ
إن قال قائل ما المبتدأ قيل كل اسم عريته من العوامل اللفظية لفظا او تقديرا فقولنا اللفظية احترازا لأن العوامل تنقسم إلى قسمين إلى عامل لفظي و إلى عامل معنوي:
فأما ا للفظي فنحو كان وأخواتها وإن وأخواتها وظننت وأخواتها وقولنا تقديرا احترازا من تقدير الفعل في نحو قوله تعالى ( إذا السماء انشقت ) وما أشبه ذلك وأما المعنوي فلم يأت إلا في موضعين عند سيبويه وأكثر البصريين هذا أحدهما وهو الابتداء والثاني وقوع الفعل المضارع موقع الاسم في نحو مررت برجل يكتب فارتفع يكتب لوقوعه موقع كاتب

و أضاف أبو الحسن الأخفش إليهما موضعا ثالثا وهو عامل الصفة فذهب إلى أن الاسم يرتفع لكونه صفة لمرفوع وينتصب لكونه صفة لمنصوب وينجر لكونه صفة لمجرور وكونه صفة في هذه الأحوال معنى يعرف بالقلب ليس للفظ فيه حظ وسيبويه وأكثر البصريين يذهبون إلى أن العامل في الصفة هو العامل في الموصوف ولهذا موضع نذكره فيه إن شاء الله تعالى

From ‘Secrets of Arabic’
by Al-Anbari:“Mubtada’ is elevated (Marfu’) or in the state of Raf’ (Elevation) because it is above all the grammatical operators of a sentence! Others said it is elevated since the rest of the sentence informs about it (So it is the entity with most information about it). Some others said that both Mubtada’ and Khabar elevate each other since they both give information about the other. “

فإن قيل بماذا يرتفع الاسم المبتدأ قيل اختلف النحويون في ذلك فذهب سيبويه ومن تابعه من البصريين إلى أنه يرتفع بتعريه من العوامل اللفظية وذهب بعض البصريين إلى أنه يرتفع بما في النفس من معنى الإخبار عنه وقد ضعفه بعض النحويين وقال لو كان الأمر كما زعم لوجب ألا ينتصب إذا دخل عليه عامل النصب لأن دخوله عليه لم يغير معنى الإخبار عنه ولوجب ألا يدخل عليه مع بقائه فلما جاز ذلك دل على فساد ما ذهب إليه وأما الكوفيون فذهبوا إلى أنه يرتفع بالخبر وزعموا أنهما يترافعان وأن كل واحد منهما يرفع الآخر وقد بينا فساده في مسائل الخلاف بين البصريين والكوفيين

فإن قيل فلم جعلتم التعري عاملا وهو عبارة عن عدم العوامل قيل لأن العوامل اللفظية ليست مؤثرة في المعمول حقيقة وإنما هي أمارات

وعلامات فالعلامة تكون بعدم شيء كما تكون بوجود شيء ألا ترى أنه لو كان معك ثوبان و أردت أن تميز أحدهما عن الآخر لكنت تصبغ أحدهما مثلا وتترك صبغ الآخر فيكون عدم الصبغ في أحدهما كصبغ الآخر فتبين بهذا أن العلامة تكون بعدم شيء كما تكون بوجود شيء وإذا ثبت هذا جاز أن يكون التعري من العوامل اللفظية عاملا

From ‘Secrets of Arabic’
by Al-Anbari:“There are three reasons that the Mubtada’ is exclusively in the state of Raf’ (Elevation):1.    Mubtada’ is the strongest (most important) element in the sentence; that is, the rest of the sentence is about it (or it is the most complex element in the sentence since the rest of the sentence explains it) and therefore the most complex Haraka (Motion) of the mouth tissues is assigned to Mubtada’ and that is the ‘o’ sound or the state of Raf’ (Elevation).
2.    Mutada’ is the beginning of the sentence, so is the elevation the beginning of something (e.g. head is the beginning of a standing human being), therefore Mubtada’ is given the state of Raf’ (Elevation).
3.    The rest of the sentence informs about the Mubtada’, just like the sentence that informs about the doer and since the doer is in the state of Raf’ (Elevation) then Mubtada’ is in the same state as well. ”

فإن قيل فلم خص المبتدأ بالرفع دون غيره قيل لثلاثة أوجه

أحدها أن المبتدأ وقع في أقوى أحواله وهو الابتداء فأعطي أقوى الحركات وهو الرفع

والوجه الثاني أن المبتدأ أول والرفع أول فأعطي الأول الأول.

والوجه الثالث أن المبتدأ مخبر عنه كما أن الفاعل مخبر عنه والفاعل مرفوع فكذلك ما أشبهه فإن قيل لماذا لا يكون المبتدأ في الأمر العام إلا معرفة قيل لأن المبتدأ مخبر عنه و الإخبار عمن لا يعرف لا فائدة فيه فإن قيل فهل يجوز تقديم خبر المبتدأ عليه نحو قائم زيد قيل اختلف النحويون في ذلك فذهب البصريون إلى أنه جائر وذهب الكوفيون إلى أنه غير جائر وأنه إذا تقدم عليه الخبر يرتفع به ارتفاع الفاعل بفعله وقالوا لو جوزنا تقديم خبر المبتدأ عليه لأدى ذلك إلى تقديم ضمير الاسم على ظاهره وذلك لا يجوز وهذا الذي ذهبوا إليه فاسد وذلك لأن اسم الفاعل اضعف من الفعل في العمل لأنه فرع عليه فلا يعمل حتى يعتمد ولم يوجد ههنا فوجب ألا يعمل وقولهم أن هذا يؤدي إلى تقديم ضمير الاسم على ظاهره فاسد أيضا لأنه وان كان مقدما لفظا إلا أنه مؤخر تقديرا وإذا كان مقدما في اللفظ مؤخرا في التقدير كان تقديمه جائزا قال الله تعالى ( فأوجس في نفسه خيفة موسى ) فالهاء في نفسه ضمير موسى وان كان في اللفظ مقدما على موسى إلا أنه لما كان موسى مقدما في التقدير والضمير في تقدير التأخير كان ذلك جائزا فكذلك ههنا والذي يدل على جواز ذلك وقوع الإجماع على جواز ضرب غلامه زيد وهذا بيّن.

وكذلك اختلفوا في الظرف إذا كان مقدما على المبتدأ نحو عندك زيد فذهب البصريون إلى أنه في موضع الخبر كما لو كان متأخرا وذهب الكوفيون إلى أن المبتدأ يرتفع بالظرف ويخرج عن كونه مبتدأ و وافقهم على ذلك أبو الحسن الأخفش في أحد قوليه وفي هذه المسالة كلام طويل بيناه في المسائل الخلافية لا يليق ذكره بهذا المختصر.

From ‘Secrets of Arabic’,
by Al-Anbari“Khabar (Information, News) for the Mubtada’ (Beginning) is of two sorts:1.    Single word: Either it is a noun that is not an attribute, e.g. Zaid ,or it is an attribute. In ‘Zaid is your brother and Amru is your son’ Zaid is the Mubtada’ therefore ‘your brother’ is its Khabar, again Amru is Mubtada’ and ‘your son’ is Khabar. In ‘Zaid is an attacker’ or ‘Amru is nice’, both attributes ‘attacker’ and ‘nice’ are Khabar.
2.    Phrase: Either it is a sentence starting with a noun e.g. ‘Zaid’s father is departed’ both ‘Zaid’ is primary Mubtada’ and ‘(his) father’ the secondary Mubtada’ and therefore ‘departed’ is the Khabar. Or a sentence that starts with a verb e.g. ‘Left Zaid’s father and Amru’. (Dara: “Zaid’s father and Amru” give Khabar (Information) about the mubtada’ verb ‘to leave’)“

أسرار العربية
المؤلف : كمال الدين أبو البركات عبد الرحمن بن أبي سعيد الأنباري
باب خبر المبتدأ
إن قال قائل على كم ضربا ينقسم خبر المبتدأ قيل على ضربين مفرد و جملة
فإن قيل على كم ضربا ! ينقسم المفرد قيل على ضربين أحدهما أن يكون اسما غير صفة والآخر أن يكون صفة
أما الاسم غير الصفة فنحو زيد أخوك وعمرو غلامك فزيد مبتدأ و أخوك خبره وكذلك عمرو مبتدأ وغلامك خبره وليس في شيء من هذا النحوا ضمير يرجع إلى المبتدأ عند البصريين وذهب الكوفيون إلى أن فيه ضميرا يرجع إلى المبتدأ وبه قال علي بن عيسى الرماني من البصريين والأول هو الصحيح لأن هذه أسماء محضة والأسماء المحضة لا تتضمن الضمائر
وأما ما كان صفة فنحو زيد ضارب وعمرو حسن وما أشبه ذلك ولا خلاف بين النحويين في أن هذا النحو يتحمل ضميرا يرجع إلى المبتدأ لأنه يتنزل منزلة الفعل ويتضمن معناه.

فإن قيل على كم ضربا تنقسم الجملة قيل على ضربين جملة اسمية وجملة فعلية فأما الجملة الاسمية فما كان الجزء الأول منها اسما وذلك نحو زيد أبوه منطلق فزيد مبتدأ أول و أبوه مبتدأ ثان ومنطلق خبر عن المبتدأ الثاني والمبتدأ الثاني وخبره خبر عن المبتدأ الأول وأما الجملة الفعلية فما كان الجزء الأول منها فعلا وذلك نحو زيد ذهب أبوه و عمرو إن تكرمه يكرمك وما أشبه ذلك أما الظرف وحرف الجر فاختلف النحويون فيهما فذهب سيبويه وجماعة من النحويين إلى أنهما يعدان من الجمل لأنهما يقدر معهما الفعل فإذا قال زيد عندك وعمرو في الدار كان التقدير زيد استقر عندك وعمرو استقر في الدار.


5.  Why were Hamza, Ya, Ta and Nun prefixed to the present/future verbs?

From ‘Secrets of Arabic’
by Al-Anbari:

“Originally these prefixes were the three Madd (Prolonging, Continuation) letters i.e. Waw, Ya and Alif”.

Dara: A Madd (Prolonging, Continuation) letter needs to be added to the beginning of a verb to make it render a prolonged or continuous action from present into future. Therefore the letters that had the Phonemes i.e. recognized minimal units of sounds, which could be uttered by the mouth region and maintain an indefinite prolonged pronunciation/exhalation were chosen for this task to represent or TAG continuity and prolongation from present into future. These prolong-able prefixed phonemes are:

1.    Waw:  (English equivalent of the English ‘double-u’ (w); It gives prolongation to the dhamma sound ‘o’.  When one Waw follows another immediately they together sound as ‘oo’ in ‘fool’. Therefore you can indefinitely prolong, via exhalation, the phoneme  ‘oooooooooooooooooooo…’
2.    Ya: (English equivalent is ‘y’, a prolongation of the sound ‘i’, kasrah phoneme)  When one Ya follows another Ya immediately they together sound as ‘ee’ in ‘eel’. Therefore you can indefinitely prolong, via exhalation, the phoneme: ‘eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee…’
3.    Alif: When one Alif follows another Alif immediately they together sound as ‘a’ in ‘ah!’. Therefore you can indefinitely prolong, via exhalation, the phoneme: ‘aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa…’

أسرار العربية
المؤلف : كمال الدين أبو البركات عبد الرحمن بن أبي سعيد الأنباري
باب المعرب و المبني
إن قال قائل ما المعرب والمبني قيل أما المعرب فهو ما تغير آخره بتغير العامل فيه لفظا أو تقديرا وهو على ضربين اسم متمكن وفعل مضارع فالاسم المتمكن ما لم يشابه الحرف ولم يتضمن معناه
والفعل المضارع ما كانت في أوله إحدى الزوائد الأربع و هي الهمزة والنون والتاء و ا لياء فإن قيل لم زيدت هذه الأحرف دون غيرها قيل لأن الأصل أن تزاد حروف المد واللين وهي الواو والياء والألف

Dara:  Human being is the medium for Divine Translation (decoding); he translates/decodes the Divine Knowledge and Information from the Malakut (Realm of Spirits) to the Mulk (Corporeal Realm) and Malakut (Realm of Spirits), whether he wills or not, consciously or subconsciously, alive or unliving, pious or evil; an extraordinary Divine Instrumentation for the sole purpose of transference of Divine Knowledge from the lit regions of Wujud (Being-ness) to the unlit darkling regions of both Being and Non-Being (‘Adam); and to this end his thoracic instrumentation genomically modified/perfected in order for him to utter prolonged phonemes, and to switch between 800+ such phonetic units, willingly or unwillingly, to acoustically articulate the architecture of flow of potentialities and uncertainties within the continuum of time vs. the indivisible incurable actualities of Qidam (Realm of all actualities free of probabilities); like unto a song-bird singing-flying through the atmosphere of Hudhur (Divine Presence), distinguished from the rest of the creation, performing ceaselessly for the audience of all that is and for all that was and for all that will be, an incessant song uncovering (Kashf) the Divine Architecture of the passage of time. His ability to pronounce ‘ooooo’ and at the same breath (without the need to inhale) switching to ‘eeeeeeee’ or ‘aaaaaaaaaaaa’ are unique to his thoracic anatomy and genetics, a Divine Translator equipped with Divine Phonetics as the Song Bird of Eden who decodes the thoracic-based sounds into the immovable truth about the time and the Owner of Time. From his lips, nasals, throat and thoracic regions expirates sounds that can give life to the unliving, give love to the unloving, and traverse unnumbered universes, and all that through a few grams of skin, muscle, bone and cartilage; a testament to the ubiquitous greatness of Master of Time Hu generously shared with human beings the cognizance of potentialities and actualities and the benevolent passage of time:2:37. Then received Adam from his Lord words , and his Lord Turned towards him; for Hu/He is Oft-Returning, Most Merciful.فَتَلَقَّى آَدَمُ مِنْ رَبِّهِ كَلِمَاتٍ فَتَابَ عَلَيْهِ إِنَّهُ هُوَ التَّوَّابُ الرَّحِيمُ )

Azizam (My Dearest) those ‘words’ were partly the genomic modification (new nucleotide sequences added) to his thoracic anatomy and nervous system to empower him to yearn and sob, and to hope and laugh in a verbose manner behind the reach of the highest ranking angel, with tiny expenditure of energy for minute oral motions and silent expirations of his lungs and imperceptible movements of thoracic region of his torso. And this thoracic modification was necessary for his Lord to turn to him to hear his sobs and to listen to the articulate moan of his yearning, while he sat or while he walked or while he slept; for Adam ran through the gardens of Eden broken-hearted and other than panting and screaming had no other faculties of communication to ask his Lord to hear him to forgive him!

And after the endowment of such Divine Genomic Gift, he had to be transported to a lower realm of existence for Adam to struggle to evanesce (away from imperfections) upon this ever-evanescing spiritual habitat gushing with the waters of Ma’refa (Divine Gnosis), the planet Earth:

2:38. We said: “Get you down (to become perfect) all from here; and if, as is sure, there comes to you Guidance from Me (in verbal acoustic/syntax form), whosoever follows My guidance, on them shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve (like someone loved and valued by his powerful and protecting Beloved).

قُلْنَا اهْبِطُوا مِنْهَا جَمِيعًا فَإِمَّا يَأْتِيَنَّكُمْ مِنِّي هُدًى فَمَنْ تَبِعَ هُدَايَ فَلَا خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ )

55:26 All that is on her (earth) will evanesce   (man [who] used to indicate the living who are endowed with intelligence)

كُلُّ مَنْ عَلَيْهَا فَانٍ

For the fear and sorrow did not leave Adam and his wife in gardens of Eden, even though they saw all that no eye had ever seen, but the bitter evanescence of this Earth was the sure medicine the Lord of Multiverse prescribed for him and his soulmate and all off-spring, to die once more but to leave the imperfections upon this earth, so Allah will char their vitiations to ashes upon the cosmic gales of amnesia:

18:8 And verily what is on her (earth) we shall make but as dust and dry soil (ma [what] used either to indicate both the living and the unliving, or just the unliving vitiations)

وَإِنَّا لَجَاعِلُونَ مَا عَلَيْهَا صَعِيدًا جُرُزًا

David’s Divine Oboe

“O Abu Musa, for sure you are given a wind-instrument (Oboe like) from the many wind-instruments of family of David”, said the Prophet.

Prophet, peace be upon him, did mention and use the concept of wind-instrument within the context of the reciting the Divine Words i.e. how a human being voyages from a mammal to a Divine Oboe by articulating few phonemes. Moreover the Prophet informed us that these Divine Wind-Instruments within us are indeed from the heritage of the Prophetic family of David.

See also Rumi’s Reed-Flute:

زيادة الجامع الصغير، والدرر المنتثرة، الإصدار 2.05 – للإمام السيوطي
كتاب “زيادة الجامع الصغير”، للسيوطي >> حرف الياء
4066- يا أبا موسى لقد أوتيت مزمارا من مزامير آل داود.
(خ ت) عن أبي موسى.
زيادة الجامع الصغير، والدرر المنتثرة، الإصدار 2.05 – للإمام السيوطي
كتاب “زيادة الجامع الصغير”، للسيوطي >> حرف اللام
2537- لو رأيتني وأنا أستمع قراءتك البارحة لقد أوتيت مزمارا من مزامير آل داود.
(م) عن أبي موسى.أساس البلاغة  الزمخشري
والزمار يزمر في المزمار: ينفخ فيه.
ويقال للحسن الصوت: لقد أوتي من مزامير آل داود، وهو جمع مزمار، كأن في حلقه مزامير، لطيب صوته، أو جمع مزمار، كأنّ في حلقه مزامير، لطيب صوته، أو جمع مزمور من مزمورات داود عليه السلام.

Mario Vaneechoutte
Department of Clinical Chemistry, Microbiology & Immunology,
Blok A, University Hospital, B 9000 Ghent, Belgium

John R. Skoyles
The evolution of intelligence:

4.2. The musical primate
4.2.1. Humans have unique adaptations for singing.

“The idea that the origin of speech lies in our ability to sing can be traced back to at least Jean Jacques Rousseau, in the seventeenth century. It was suggested by the famous linguist Wilhelm von Humboldt in the nineteenth century and by Otto Jespersen early in this one. However, this approach to language has been ignored in more modern times. Indicative is that the word `music’ lacks in the index of the recent books of Pinker and Deacon. In recent times, music has received serious attention by some linguists, but this was done within the Chomskyan paradigm and did not address the origin of language.

Just like song birds possess highly sophisticated syringes, there are very characteristic morphological changes of the human glottis and larynx, unequalled in any mammalian species. Aitchison remarks: “Our language has more in common with the singing and calling of birds, than with the vocal signals of apes.”

The resemblance to bird song was noticed already by Charles Darwin:

“(Language) is certainly not a true instinct, for every language has to be learnt. It differs, however, widely from all ordinary arts, for man has an instinctive tendency to speak, as we see in the babble of our young children; whilst no child has an instinctive tendency to brew, bake, or write. … The sounds uttered by birds offer in several respects the nearest analogy to language, for all the members of the same species utter the same instinctive cries expressive of their emotions; and all the kinds which sing, exert their power instinctively; but the actual song, and even the call-notes, are learnt from their parents or foster-parents. These sounds, …, are no more innate then language is in man.”

Provine has shown that a unique overlooked feature of human speech is our ability to integrate respiration and vocalisation. We, as humans, breath in a way unique among the primates – since only we can neurally modulate sequences of tonal vocalisations upon our expirations. Other primates can vocalise but they are limited to only one vocalization per expiration. For example, both humans and chimpanzees laugh: however, chimpanzees do so by an `ah’, `ah’, `ah’ sequence of repeated inspirations and expirations. In contrast, we do a modulating `ha, ha, ha, ..’ or `ho, ho, ho ..’ upon a single out-breath – this modulation often going on continuous for 16 laughter syllables. Moveover, we can subtly tune our series of vocalisations upon a single continuous out-breath. Only amongst birds – not other primates – are there species that possess comparable respiratory-control ability. This underlies the curious fact that while some birds can imitate human speech, the much more closely related chimpanzee or any mammal cannot.

The neural control that allows song was, we suggest, a profound revolution: the `one breath one-vocalisation’ rule stops chimpanzees not only from laughing like humans but also from being able to control the expiration needed to speak. This, as Provine notes, is the reason why attempts to teach spoken language to chimpanzees have failed in spite of them being able to learn sign and token-based languages and even to understand spoken speech.

Neural control of respiration allows many more kinds of vocalizations: over 700 vowel, diphthongs and consonantal phones were found in a sample based upon only one-twentieth of all the world’s languages. Moreover, such control allows the concatenation of very complex sequences. Thus, vocalisations upon a single out-breath combine into words, and these in turn combine into clauses, phrases and sentences. Neural control also allows modulations to be superimposed upon these vocalisations, such as intonation (linguistic, pragmatic and emotional), and this can be upon a wide variety of speech types like whisper, song, chant, scream, motherese, `Donald-Duck speech’ and ventriloquism.”

From ‘Secrets of Arabic’
by Al-Anbari:

“But Alif has no sound in and of itself, unless it is after itself or another letter or unless it is given some Haraka (Oral Movement), therefore Hamza is used in its place. (Dara: Hamza is a soundless construct that abruptly starts with a little ‘eh’, a soundless exhalation, sharply after another phoneme. Or another phoneme ends sharply in such a soundless manner) Both Alif and Hamza are free flowing air from the throat so they are very close to each other and thus Hamza is a properly chosen replacement for Alif’s lack of sound. “

Dara: Hamza is used in ‘Af’ulu (I do) and the past tense ‘Uf’alu (Done to me). These are the sharp exhalation sounds made in the beginnings of these two verbs. Mind you it is also the beginning of ‘Ana (I)! These sharp starting sounds indicate a chasm, i.e. sudden sundering from the rest of the universe, meaning the self-awareness of ‘I am other than the rest of the universe’, a form of tearing away the human from the nexus of all else, thus the sharp starting exhalation phoneme renders this partition.

إلا أن الألف لما لم يمكن زيادتها أولا لأن الألف لا تكون إلا ساكنة والابتداء بالساكن محال أبدلوا منها الهمزة لقرب مخرجيهما لأنهما هوائيان يخرجان من أقصى الحلق

From ‘Secrets of Arabic’
by Al-Anbari:“Similarly Waw is also replaced by Ta; since prefixing of Waw to words is not a part of the speech of the Arab and if its addition is necessary to the beginning of a word then it is replaced by Ta. Haven’t you heard the Arab say Turāth (Inheritance) in place of Wurāth, Tujāh (In front of) in place of Wujāh, Tukhma (Indigestible) in place of Wuhma or Tuhma (Accusation) in place of Wuhma!”Dara: Ta is used in the beginning of Taf’ulu (You do) Taf’ulāni (You two do) Taf’ulūna (You all do) Taf’ulaina (You female do) Taf’ulāni (You two females do) Taf’ulna (You all females do) and finally Taf’ulu (she female does). Note that both ‘you do’ and ‘she does’, in singular form, are the same verb Taf’ulu, i.e. these verbs were used when Adam and Eve were in presence of Allah; Eve being a Divine Secret generated from deep within Adam, ‘she does something’ was no different ‘you do something’ for she was from him. This intimacy is noteworthy. Also ‘you two males do’ and ‘you two females do’ are the same verb Taf’ulāni due to the same metaphysical reality, i.e. in the beginning were only Adam and Eve and therefore ‘you two’ was the same regardless of gender. Again, in the same vein, Taf’ulāni is for ‘she two females do’.

These verbs have Haraka (Oral Motion) of Fat-ha for the starting Ta, since this Haraka is the least complex of all phonemes. But the passive counter parts have the Haraka (Oral Motion) of Dhamma (‘o’ sound), the most complex, since the passive concept is far more complicated than a regular verb, i.e. requires the concepts of ‘context’ ‘unknown doer’ and so on.

وكذلك الواو ايضا لما لم يمكن زيادتها أولا لأنه ليس في كلام العرب واو زيدت أولا أبدلوا منها التاء لأنها تبدل منها كثيرا ألا ترى أنهم قالوا تراث وتجاه وتخمة وتهمة وتيقور وتولج قال الشاعرا – من الرجز –
( متخذا من عضوات تولجا … )
وهو بيت الصائد والأصل وراث ووجاه ووخمة ووهمة وويقور لأنه من الوقار ووولج لأنه من الولوج فأبدلوا التاء من الواو في هذه المواضع كلها وكذلك ههنا.

From ‘Secrets of Arabic’
by Al-Anbari:

“Ya can be added to the beginning of the words without any reservation, unlike the ones above.”

Dara: Ya is added to the beginning of the third person present-future verbs i.e. Yaf’ulu (He does), Yaf’ulāni (You two do) Yaf’aluna (You all do). Ya is also added to the beginning of the female plural verb Yaf’ulna (They all females do) not to confuse with the Taf’ulna (You all females do).

وأما الياء فزيدت لأنها لم يعرض فيها ما يمنع من زيادتها كما عرض في الألف والواو

From ‘Secrets of Arabic’
by Al-Anbari:“But Nun is added since it is similar to Madd (Prolonging) alphabets. (Dara: Nun is actually Waw sandwiched between two ‘n’ sounds so it prolongs as Waw prolongs!)”

وأما النون فإنما زيدت لأنها تشبه حروف المد واللين وتزاد معها في باب الزيدين و الزيدين.

From ‘Secrets of Arabic’
by Al-Anbari:“This is how the order of addition of these letters is realized:1.    Hamza: For the first person singular, ‘I’, ie. the first the human being calls his own Nafs (Self) before others.
2.    Nun: For first person plural, ‘we’, ie. the person calling his own Self and other Selves.
3.    Ta: Second person, ‘you’, ie. for calling the person in front of him
4.    Ya: Third person, ‘he/she’, ie.For calling the absent third person.“

والتحقيق في ترتيب هذه الأحرف أن تقدم الهمزة ثم النون ثم التاء ثم الياء وذلك لأن الهمزة للمتكلم وحده والنون للمتكلم ولمن معه والتاء للمخاطب والياء للغائب والأصل أن يخبر الإنسان عن نفسه ثم عن نفسه وعمن معه ثم المخاطب ثم الغائب فهذا هو التحقيق في ترتيب هذه الأحرف في أول الفعل المضارع.

From ‘Secrets of Arabic’
by Al-Anbari:“Present-future verbs are treated the same way as the nouns, so far as the inflecting suffixes are concerned, and for that matter these present-future verbs are called Mudhari’ namely ‘similar’ (Dhara’) for they are similar siblings! These similarities are due to five reasons:1.    As with the nouns, which can be definite or indefinite ( i.e. universal and unspecified), the present-future verbs can be either in present tense or in future tense. As with the nouns that can be made definite by the addition of the prefix Al- (definite article ‘the’), the present-future tense can be made into exclusively future tense by the addition of the prefix Sin- (‘s’ sound).
2.    Lam (‘L’ sound) can be prefixed to both nouns and present-future verbs, e.g. Lam for verbs is as the ‘would’ or ‘might’ in English, and again Lam for nouns is for emphasis, i.e. indeed or for sure.
3.    As these verbs are used for both present and future, the nouns are also are used for double meanings e.g. ‘Ain means ‘eye’ as well as ‘a spring’ and so on.
4.    You can say either ‘I passed by a man (who is) hitting’ or ‘I passed by a man, a hitter’ here the verb is equaled and exchanged for an attribute as the same is done for a noun.
5.    The Haraka (Oral Movement) for the Ism-Fa’il (Verbal Noun) is the same as for the present-future verbs.“

فإن قيل فإذا كان الأصل في الفعل المضارع أن يكون مبنيا فلم حمل على الاسم في الإعراب قيل إنما حمل الفعل المضارع على الاسم في الإعراب لأنه ضارع الاسم ولهذا سمي مضارعا والمضارعة المشابهة ومنها سمي الضرع ضرعا لأنه يشابه أخاه ووجه المشابهة بين هذا الفعل والاسم من خمسة أوجه

الوجه الأول أنه يكون شائعا فيتخصص كما أن الاسم يكون شائعا فيتخصص، ألا ترى أنك تقول يقوم فيصلح للحال والاستقبال فإذا أدخلت عليه السين أو سوف اختص بالاستقبال كما أنك تقول رجل فيصلح لجميع الرجال فإذا أدخلت عليه الألف واللام اختص برجل بعينه فلما اختص هذا الفعل بعد شياعه كما أن الاسم يختص بعد شياعه فقد شابهه من هذا والوجه

الوجه الثاني أنه تدخل عليه لام الابتداء كما تدخل على الاسم ألا ترى أنك تقول أن زيدا ليقوم كما تقول أن زيدا لقائم ولام الابتداء تختص بالأسماء فلما دخلت على هذا الفعل دل على مشابهة بينهما والذي يدل على ذلك أن فعل الأمر والفعل الماضي لما بعدا عن شبه الاسم لم تدخل هذه اللام عليهما ألا ترى أنك لو قلت لأكرم زيدا يا عمرو أو إن زيدا لقام لكان خلفا من القول

والوجه الثالث أن هذا الفعل يشترك فيه الحال والاستقبال فأشبه الأسماء المشتركة كالعين ينطلق على العين الباصرة وعلى عين الماء وعلى غير ذلك

و الوجه الرابع أنه يكون صفة كما يكون الاسم كذلك تقول مررت برجل يضرب كما تقول مررت برجل ضارب، فقد قام يضرب مقام ضارب

والوجه الخامس أن الفعل المضارع يجري على اسم الفاعل في حركاته وسكونه ألا ترى أن يضرب على وزن ضارب في حركاته وسكونه ولهذا عمل اسم الفاعل عمل الفعل، فلما أشبه الفعل المضارع الاسم من هذه الأوجه استحق جملة الإعراب الذي هو الرفع والنصب والجزم ولكل واحد من هذه الأنواع عامل يختص به


6.  Why is the past tense verb based upon a Haraka (Oral Movement)?From ‘Secrets of Arabic’
by Al-Anbari:“The past tense verbs are based upon a Haraka (Oral Movement) since they are to be more complex than the imperative verbs which are based upon no end-inflection i.e. Sukun (Sound-less) e.g. ‘Uktub (Do write) the Ba (‘b’ sound) has free of any Haraka (Oral Movement). Moreover the past tense verbs are names for objects to render their attributes e.g. ‘I passed by a man (while he) hit’ or ‘I passed by a hitter’; here ‘hitter’ is an attribute for a man who was hitting in the past. Also past tense verbs do resemble names in conditional statements e.g. ‘if you did, I did’ i.e. ‘if you do I will do as well’; here ‘I did’ is treated like a noun and again here ‘I did’ is treated like a present-future tense verb which again acts like a noun.”

Dara: Imperative verbs are actions that have not yet taken place, so they have nil complexity (and therefore nil Haraka, Oral Movement)!  Past tense verbs have complexity (i.e. actions that took place in the past consumed resources and transmitted information and produced side-effects) therefore they are given a Haraka (Oral Movement) in order for them to be distinct from the imperative nil-complexity verbs.

أسرار العربية
المؤلف : كمال الدين أبو البركات عبد الرحمن بن أبي سعيد الأنباري
باب إعراب الأفعال وبنائها
إن قال قائل لم كانت الأفعال ثلاثة ماض وحاضر ومستقبل قيل لأن الأزمنة لما كانت ثلاثة وجب أن تكون الأفعال ثلاثة ماض وحاضر ومستقبل.
فإن قيل فلم بني الفعل الماضي على حركة ولم كانت الحركة فتحة قيل إنما بني أولا لأن الأصل في الأفعال البناء – وبني على حركة تفضيلا له على فعل الأمر لأن الفعل الماضي أسماء الأشياء في الصفة نحو قولك مررت برجل ضرب كما تقول مررت برجل ضارب وأشبه أيضا ما أشبه الأسماء في الشرط والجزاء فإنك تقول إن فعلت فعلت والمعنى فيه إن تفعل أفعل فلما قام الماضي مقام المستقبل والمستقبل قد أشبه الأسماء فقد أشبه ما أشبه الأسماء فلما أشبه ما أشبه الأسماء وجب أن يبنى على حركة تفضيلا له على فعل الأمر الذي ما أشبه الأسماء ولا أشبه ما أشبهها

7. Why are past tense verbs based upon the Haraka (Oral Movement) of Fat-ha (‘a’ sound in ‘cat’)?

From ‘Secrets of Arabic’
by Al-Anbari:

“Indeed Fat-ha (‘a’ sound in ‘cat’) is the least complex of all Harakat (Oral Movements), and past tense verbs necessarily have to be based upon least complexity. Any other Haraka (Oral Movement) has more complexity to it and therefore cannot represent the least complex past-tense.”

Dara: Past tense is already done and finished, no longer has any potentialities or probabilities attributed to it and it is atomic and no statistic applies to its instantiated occurrence. For that reason it is the least complex of all other verbs, e.g. present or future verbs, on the contrary, require magnificent potentiality-structures built within a divisible continuum with assigned probabilities and statistics and unnumbered many such spaces. For that matter past tense is the least complex of all verbs and therefore it has the inflection of least complex mouth area tissue movements i.e. Fat-Ha (‘a’ sound in ‘cat’).

‘he did’ is Fa+’a+La with all ‘a’ sound as in ‘cat’, so the past tense verbs are mostly build using the Fat-ha Haraka (Oral Motion).

وإنما كانت الحركة فتحة لوجهين:
أحدهما أن الفتحة أخف الحركات فلما وجب بناؤه على حركة وجب أن يبنى على أخف الحركات والوجه الثاني أنه لا يخلو إما أن يبنى على الكسر أو على الضم أو على الفتح بطل أن يبنى على الكسر لأن الكسر ثقيل والفعل ثقيل والثقيل لا ينبغي أن يبنى على ثقيل وإذا كان الجر لا يدخله وهو غير لازم لثقله فألا يدخله الكسر الذي هو لازم كان ذلك من طريق الأولى


Additional Concepts


From Treatise of Ibn Arabi
Book of Al-Jalāla (The Most Momentous)

Allah is a negation-Kalima (Divine Word) (established) firmly within the realm of ‘Alawi (Loftiest ranking Universe), all Translations glide upwards by means of her (female pronoun referring to the Kalima)”.

رسائل ابن عربي
كتاب الجلالة
الله كلمة نفي شدت في العالم العلوي فارتفع بها الترجمان

By ‘negation-word’ it is meant all that we see or can touch or can think about or imagine is NOT Allah! That is the meaning of La-Sharika-La-Hu (No associate for IT/Allah).

Q: What is the ‘Translation’?
A: When we have a thought, how does it become related to Allah who has no obvious presence here? When we see a part of nature performing, e.g. internal operations of a cell or the sub-atomic structures of matter, how that is related to Allah? When we are sorrowing how does that invoke Allah’s mercy? When we feel fortunate and have pleasure how does that invoke gratitude for Allah within us? The process that bridges from the Malakut (Spiritual Realm) into our human Wujud (Being) and vice versa is coined Tarjumān (Translation) by means of which the human being can bridge into the other spiritual universe or from there to here. Very much like the translation of computer languages from this keyboard I am typing in, into the hardware and CPU of the computer and backwards from the guts of the hardware to the screen I am looking at now, a bi-directional process of translations between the computer languages and instructions.

Q: Who is the ‘Translator’?
A: The human being. S/he is the translator of all that exists in this world, within him/her, into the Malakut (Spiritual Realm) and vice versa from the Malakut (Spiritual Realm) into the Mulk (Corporeal Realm).

Q: How are these ‘translations’ transported into the Malakut (Spiritual Realm)?
A: By means of the Kalima (Divine Word) ‘Allah’, which negates all else, i.e. IT is not anything else in existence, thus creating a gravitational pull (Jazaba) that pulls all the human translations upwards towards the Divine Presence by the Kalima (Divine Word) ‘Allah’, and that is the meaning of Bismillahi (In The Name of Allah), i.e. all that I am about to recite of Divine Words are translated and glided upwards only by means of Allah’s Divine Words and no other entity has the ability to do such lofty upward pull.

Note: The said gravitational pull is of ‘osmosis’ nature, i.e. all that which is NOT Allah rushes via some invisible gravitational pull towards Allah, through the barrier (Barzakh)!

Q: What is complexity?
A: Complexity is the content of translation, i.e. how much Divine Translation is performed by the human being, and the greater the measure of this content, i.e. the more complexity, the more gliding occurs towards Allah.

Q: What is ‘gliding’?
A: The second you have, for instance, the thought ‘who made this tree?’, or make utterance of some gratitude, you are gliding upwards towards Allah! This gliding is an operation caused by the Divine Presence of Allah within this universe where we cannot perceive or see Allah in any corporeal fashion by our biological eyes and other senses. The opposite of ‘go down’:

2:38. We said: “Get you down (to become perfect) all from here; and if, as is sure, there comes to you Guidance from Me (in verbal acoustic/syntax form), whosoever follows My guidance, on them shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve (like someone loved and valued by his powerful and protecting Beloved).

قُلْنَا اهْبِطُوا مِنْهَا جَمِيعًا فَإِمَّا يَأْتِيَنَّكُمْ مِنِّي هُدًى فَمَنْ تَبِعَ هُدَايَ فَلَا خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ )

Q: What is Hamd?
A: Hamd is a state wherein Allah is discerned from all else, with clarity and beyond the reach/use of any cognitive faculties or instrumentation, though intellects and instrumentations might be used to approach this Divine State.

Q: Why is Dhamma (‘o’ sound) added to Hamd, i.e. Hamdu?
A: Dhamma (‘o’ sound) indicates highest levels of complexities (contents of translations by human beings) required in order for the human being to glide towards Allah by entering into the state of Hamd wherein s/he sees or feels or thinks of nothing except Allah; like rocket fuel, the more the fuel the further the rocket travels.

رسائل ابن عربي

كتاب الألف
أحدية حمد الواحد في وحدانية
وحدانية حمد الأحد في أحديته




Note: Majaz (Corridor) could be rendered as a camera shutter where the person is able to take a quick glance of the other universe, or grasp a meaning from the spiritual realm. For “The + delay” see Thumma.

© 2009-2002,  Dara O Shayda, Editor: A. Attar

Sunderer: Falaqa, Fatara, Shaqqa





Discussion    Join

See Also:


Templates Mu-n-fa’il, ‘I-n-fi’al



We are surrounded by singularities no matter where and when and what and how we examine.

A singularity separates realm A from realm B, where each realm are endowed with structures and rules for existence of the entities within them. There is no way the two realms could immix and if they could they both would have had perished. They can coexist since the singularity forbids them to commix in whatsoever way.

By observation we can see that in some cases entities from realm A find a way to appear in realm B, but transformed. Transformed since the original entity in realm A (stars) cannot exist in real B (polygons), for that matter the entity in realm A must transform to structure allowable in realm B.

For example a larva crosses the singularity of a cocoon to adopt new rules of motion i.e. rapid aerial flight abandoning the completely incompatible slow crawling motion on branches. Or ice in solid form, suddenly becomes liquid.

This translocation has the ‘feel’ of passing through a ‘breakage’ in singularity!

For briefest moment of time a breakage occurs, entity instantly translocates from realm A into realm B, breakage closes and the entity is transformed into something completely different, no longer in realm A, but now in realm B.

For example acorn is a seemingly un-living organism in a hard shell, suddenly breaks the shell and is a soft living sprouting plant.


Remark: The motion and processes for translocating from realm A to realm B are not continuous nor smooth, so to say. There is a jump, thus the verbiage ‘breakage’. Something breaks, crystal ice instantly becomes liquid water i.e. something totally different. In order to be specific, use the word Sunder for breakage in the singularity. 

The Singleton Sunderer the active agent that does the breakage, and in Qur’an IT is named as Fatir (Sunderer). And there are no other sunderers.

Breakage as such has three categories:

1. Fatara: Cosmos Wide Breakage

2. Falaqa: Breakage with splinters  (shattered subparts)

3. Shaqqa: Breakage when the beginning or head of something pushes through

Each category is highly particularized form of breakage.



The origin of the word Al-Fatr is Shaqq(Narrow opening, crack, fissure, split, slit, gap, tear, rip) along the length of an object.
Fatra-t of animal means to milk it by means of two fingers, Fatra-t of dough means to knead the dough (by fingers) into bread. (Dara: let’s call this Handiwork)

Lisan Al-Arab
Ibn Manzour

Fatara the fingers means fingers moved to sign some expression.

لسان العرب     ابن منظور

 وفَطَر أَصابعَه فَطْراً: غمزها

Al-Fitra-t: Allah Fatara the creation means Allah brought entities into being and invented them in a form (like kneading the dough) trained for a particular way of action (behavior):

فِطۡرَتَ ٱللَّهِ ٱلَّتِى فَطَرَ ٱلنَّاسَ عَلَيۡہَا‌ۚ

30:30.  Allah‘s Handiwork, that which, Fatara people conformally (according to the design of the handiwork)

Allah’s Handiwork has focused and positioned the human nature to believe (in Tauhid (Divine Oneness))

مفردات ألفاظ القرآن. – للأصفهاني
كتاب الفاء
-أصل الفطر: الشق طولا، يقال: فطر فلان كذا فطرا، وأفطر هو فطورا، وانفطر انفطارا. قال تعالى: {هل ترى من فطور} <الملك/3>، أي: اختلال ووهي فيه، وذلك قد يكون على سبيل الفساد، وقد يكون على سبيل الصلاح قال: {السماء منفطر به كان وعده مفعولا} <المزمل/18>. وفطرت الشاة: حلبتها بأصبعين، وفطرت العجين: إذا عجنته فخبرته من وقته، ومنه: الفطرة. وفطر الله الخلق، وهو إيجاده الشيء وإبداعه على هيئة مترشحة لفعل من الأفعال، فقوله: {فطرت الله التي فطر الناس عليها} <الروم/30>، فإشارة منه تعالى إلى ما فطر. أي: أبدع وركز في الناس من معرفته تعالى، وفطرة الله: هي ما ركز فيه من قوته على معرفة الإيمان، وهو المشار إليه بقوله: {ولئن سألتهم من خلقهم ليقولن الله} <الزخرف/87>، وقال: {الحمد لله فاطر السموات والأرض} <فاطر/1>، وقال: {الذي فطرهن} <الأنبياء/56>، {والذي فطرنا} <طه/72>، أي: أبدعنا وأوجدنا. يصح أن يكون الانفطار في قوله: {السماء منفطر به} <المزمل/18>، إشارة إلى قبول ما أبدعها وأفاضه علينا منه. والفطر: ترك الصوم. يقال: فطرته، وأفطرته، وأفطر هو (انظر: الأفعال 4/12)، وقيل: للكمأة: فطر، من حيث إنها تفطر الأرض فتخرج منها.

Lisan Al-Arab
Ibn Manzour

Fitra-t to invent but for the first time. Allah Fatara means Allah created the people and started them (for the first time). Ibn Abbas said I could not understand what Allah is Fatir of heavens and earth means until I heard two bedouins arguing over a well when one said: I Fatara this well i.e. I started this well.

لسان العرب     ابن منظور
 .وفَطَرَ الله الخلق يَفْطُرُهم: خلقهم وبدأَهم. والفِطْرةُ: الابتداء والاختراع. وفي التنزيل العزيز: الحمد لله فاطِرِ السمواتِ والأَرضِ؛ قال ابن عباس، رضي الله عنهما: ما كنت أَدري ما فاطِرُ السموات والأَرض حتى أَتاني أَعرابيّان يختصمان في بئر فقال أَحدهما: أَنا فَطَرْتُها أَي أَنا ابتدأْت حَفْرها. وذكر أَبو العباس أَنه سمع ابن الأَعرابي يقول: أَنا أَول من فَطَرَ هذا أَي ابتدأَه.

Fatir is the grammatical agent of verb Fatara i.e. the Sunderer, the sunderer across the cosmos, the starter of all objects going through the cosmic-wide sunderance of singularity.



Falaqa is Shaqq(Narrow opening, crack, fissure, split, slit, gap, tear, rip) of an object when some broken parts of it are discernible and patent from other parts.  (Dara: you might say something breaks open to see what is inside)

Faliq is the grammatical agent, the doer of Falaqa or the sunderer.

Dara: Faliq of Dawn is the sunderer of the singularity of darkness, breakage through which light appears.

مفردات ألفاظ القرآن. – للأصفهاني
كتاب الفاء
-الفلق: شق الشيء وإبانة بعضه عن بعض. يقال: فلقته فانفلق. قال تعالى: {فالق الإصباح} <الأنعام/96>، {إن الله فالق الحب والنوى} <الأنعام/ 95>، {فانفلق فكان كل فرق كالطود العظيم} <الشعراء/63>، وقيل للمطمئن من الأرض بين ربوتين: فلق، وقوله: {قل أعوذ برب الفلق} <الفلق/1>، أي: الصبح، وقيل: الأنهار المذكورة في قوله: {أم من جعل الأرض قرارا وجعل خلالها أنهارا} <النمل/61>، وقيل: هو الكلمة التي علم الله تعالى موسى ففلق بها البحر، والفلق: المفلوق، كالنقض والنكث للمنقوض والمنكوث، وقيل الفلق: العجب، والفيلق كذلك، والفليق والفالق: ما بين الجبلين وما بين السنامين من ظهر البعير

Tafsir Kabir

Al-Falaq is breakage, between ‘Adam (Non-being) to Being (Wujud),  necessary for an object to become (in our world here). And the Aql (Intellect) imagines Non-being as a continuous connected gap-less darkness without any form of crack or opening or fissure, then when the object appears existing (in our world) then Aql(Intellect) renders a breakage.

تفسير مفاتيح الغيب ، التفسير الكبير/ الرازي (ت 606 هـ)
القول الأول: وهو مروي عن ابن عباس وقول الضحاك ومقاتل: { فَالِقُ ٱلْحَبّ وَٱلنَّوَىٰ } أي خالق الحب والنوى. قال الواحدي: ذهبوا بفالق مذهب فاطر، وأقول: الفطر هو الشق، وكذلك الفلق، فالشيء قبل أن دخل في الوجود كان معدوماً محضاً ونفياً صرفاً، والعقل يتصور من العدم ظلمة متصلة لا انفراج فيها ولا انفلاق ولا انشقاق، فإذا أخرجه المبدع الموجد من العدم إلى الوجود، فكأنه بحسب التخيل والتوهم شق ذلك العدم وفلقه. وأخرج ذلك المحدث من ذلك الشق. فبهذا التأويل لا يبعد حمل الفالق على الموجد والمحدث والمبدع.

Tafsir Kabir


6:95 Inna (Directional Actualizer, Forsooth) Allah (is) Faliq (Sunderer) of seed and fruit-kernel. IT causes the living to issue (exit) from the dead, and Issuer (exit-er) of dead from the living. That is for you (people) namely Allah.

Remark: Za-Li-Kum (That is for you (people)) is used in rare occasion as opposed to the oft-repeated standing phrase Za-Li-Ka (That is for you (Muhammad) the address is for all humanity to know Faliq sunders the singularity for seeds to sprout, sunders the darkness for the light to illuminate and sunders cosmos wide singularity for Taudhi (Divine Oneness) to appear as part of our innate inert nature.

IT causes the living to issue (exit) from the dead: Explicates (Tafsir, Bayan) the Faliq earlier in the sentence


Issuer (exit-er) of dead from the living: Is like a noun in conjunction to the earlier noun Faliq i.e. they are the same nouns the one that sunders the seeds and the one that issues the dead from the living.

تفسير مفاتيح الغيب ، التفسير الكبير/ الرازي (ت 606 هـ)
قلنا: قوله: { وَمُخْرِجُ ٱلْمَيّتِ مِنَ ٱلْحَىّ } معطوف على قوله: { فَالِقُ ٱلْحَبّ وَٱلنَّوَىٰ } وقوله: { يُخْرِجُ ٱلْحَىَّ مِنَ ٱلْمَيّتِ } كالبيان والتفسير لقوله: { فَالِقُ ٱلْحَبّ وَٱلنَّوَىٰ } لأن فلق الحب والنوى بالنبات والشجر النامي من جنس إخراج الحي من الميت، لأن النامي في حكم الحيوان.


Lisan Al-Arab
Ibn Manzour

Shaqq(Narrow opening, crack, fissure, split, slit, gap, tear, rip) is a breakage in clear view or concealed.

لسان العرب     ابن منظور
الشَّقُّ: مصدر قولك شَقَقْت العُود شَقّاً والشَّقُّ: الصَّدْع البائن، وقيل: غير البائن، وقيل: هو الصدع عامة. وفي التهذيب: الشَّقُّ الصدع في عود أَو حائط أو زُجاجة؛

Lisan Al-Arab
Ibn Manzour

Shaqqa plants means the earth cracked and plants germinated. And at that the very beginning of germination and sticking out.


Similarly Shaqqa the tooth of the infant means the first signs of new tooth pushing out of the gums.
Shaqqa the palm tree means its top leaves appeared.
Similarly Shaqqa is used for dawn as well.

لسان العرب     ابن منظور
 وشَقَّ النبتُ يَشُقُّ شُقوقاً: وذلك في أَول ما تَنْفَطِر عنه الأرض. وشقَّ نابُ الصبي يَشُقُّ شقوقاً: في أَوّل ما يظهر. وشقَّ نابُ البعير يَشُقُّ شقوقاً: طلع، وهو لغة في شَقا إذا فطر نابُه. وشَقَّ بصر الميِّت شقوقا: شخَص ونظر إلى شيء لا يرتدُّ إليه طرْفُه وهو الذي حضره الموت، ولا يقال شَقَّ بَصَرَه. وفي الحديث: أَلم تَرَوْا إلى الميِّت إذا شَقَّ بَصَرُه أي انفتح، وضَمُّ الشين فيه غيرُ مختار
والشَّقُّ: الصبح. وشَقَّ الصبحُ يَشُقُّ شَقّاً إذا طلع. وفي الحديث:فلما شَقَّ الفَجْران أمَرنا بإقامة الصلاة؛ يقال: شَقَّ الفجرُ وانْشَقَّ إذا طلع كأنه شَقَّ موضعَ طلوعِه وخرج منه.
أَشَقَّ النخلُ طلعت شَواقُّه

Therefore Shaqqa deals with breakage when the beginning of an entity shows through the breakage. Mufradat

54:1 The Hour (of Judgment) is nigh, and the moon is cleft asunder.

ٱقۡتَرَبَتِ ٱلسَّاعَةُ وَٱنشَقَّ ٱلۡقَمَرُ

The Arab used to make circumstances plain by moon e.g. the hardship of the Dooms Day is rendered by the splitting of the moon. (Hassan Basari)


كتاب الشين
-الشق: الخرم الواقع في الشيء. يقال: شققته بنصفين. قال تعالى: {ثم شققنا الأرض شقا} <عبس/26>، {يوم تشقق الأرض عنهم سراعا} <ق/44>، {وانشقت السماء} <الحاقة/16>، {إذا السماء انشقت} <الانشقاق/1>، {وانشق القمر} <القمر/1>، وقيل: انشقاقه في زمن النبي عليه الصلاة والسلام، وقيل: هو انشقاق يعرض فيه حين تقرب القيامة (وهذا قول الحسن البصري، انظر: تفسير الماوردي 4/135)، وقيل: معناه: وضح الأمر (وذلك لأن العرب تضرب بالقمر مثلا فيما وضح أمره، قال الشاعر:
أقيموا بني أمي صدور مطيكم * فإني إلى قوم سواكم لأميل
فقد حمت الحاجات، والليل مقمر * وشدت لطيات مطايا وأرحل

Templates Mu-n-fa’il, ‘I-n-fi’al 

Normally the Arabic verbs are of the tertiary form Fa-‘A-La, but some of their derivations occur in other exotic templates for example Shaqqa means breakage also ‘I-n-Shaqqa means breakage both in past tense. However ‘I-n-Shaqqa carries more semantic i.e. moon sundered but it was not the doing of the moon itself, the breakage occurred out of its control.

Other examples:

82:1 When the Sky is cleft asunder

إِذَا ٱلسَّمَآءُ ٱنفَطَرَتۡ

26:63 Then We told Moses by inspiration: “Strike the sea with thy rod.” So it divided, and each separate part became like the huge, firm mass of a mountain.

فَأَوۡحَيۡنَآ إِلَىٰ مُوسَىٰٓ أَنِ ٱضۡرِب بِّعَصَاكَ ٱلۡبَحۡرَ‌ۖ فَٱنفَلَقَ فَكَانَ كُلُّ فِرۡقٍ۬ كَٱلطَّوۡدِ ٱلۡعَظِيمِ


Normally a subject in a sentence is acted upon by the grammatical doer’s doing (verb).

Mu-n-Fa’il (or ‘I-n-fi’al) describe actions happening to the subject but there is no (obvious) grammatical doer even if the action commences from the subject itself. Examples: A person blushing, joy from hearing music or excitement of a lover at the sight of his beloved.

In general for Mu-n-Fa’il (or ‘I-n-fi’al) there is no grammatical doer, though the doer is assumed to be Allah.

مفردات ألفاظ القرآن. – للأصفهاني
كتاب الفاء
التأثير من جهة مؤثر، وهو عام لما كان بإجادة أو غير إجادة، ولما كان بعلم أو غير علم، وقصد أو غير قصد، ولما كان من الإنسان والحيوان والجمادات، والعمل مثله، والصنع أخص منهما كما تقدم ذكرهما (تقدم في مادة (عمل)، ومادة (صنع) )، قال: {وما تفعلوا من خير يعلمه الله} <البقرة/197>، {ومن يفعل ذلك عدوانا وظلما} <النساء/30>، {يا أيها الرسول بلغ ما أنزل إليك من ربك وإن لم تفعل فما بلغت رسالته} <المائدة/67>، أي: إن لم تبلغ هذا الأمر فأنت في حكم من لم يبلغ شيئا بوجه، والذي من جهة الفاعل يقال له: مفعول ومنفعل، وقد فصل بعضهم بين المفعول والمنفعل، فقال: المفعول يقال إذا اعتبر بفعل الفاعل، والمنفغل إذا اعتبر قبول الفعل في نفسه، قال: فالمفعول أعم من المنفعل؛ لأن المنفعل يقال لما لا يقصد الفاعل إلى إيجاده وإن تولد منه، كحمرة اللون من خجل يعتري من رؤية إنسان، والطرب الحاصل عن الغناء، وتحرك العاشق لرؤية معشوقه. وقيل لكل فعل: انفعال إلا للإبداع الذي هو من الله تعالى، فذلك هو إيجاد عن عدم لا في عرض وفي جوهر بل ذلك هو إيجاد الجوهر.

© 2013-2002,  Dara O Shayda

Fard (Individuated One) vs. Ahad (Only One Extant)



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Fard: the one that does not co-mix co-mingle with others, more general than Witr and more particularized than Wahid.

Its plural is Furadi.

Remark 1. Fard is an individual who is individuated from all else, totally discernible from any other possibly similar entities. It is one because it was singled or discerned somehow.

مفردات ألفاظ القرآن. الإصدار 2.03 – للأصفهاني
كتاب الفاء

-الفرد: الذي لا يختلط به غيره، فهو أعم من الوتر وأخص من الواحد، وجمعه: فرادى. قال تعالى: {لا تذرني فردا} <الأنبياء/89>، أي: وحيدا، ويقال في الله: فرد، تنبيها أنه بخلاف الأشياء كلها في الازدواج المنبه عليه بقوله: {ومن كل شيء خلقنا زوجين} <الذاريات/49>، وقيل: معناه المستغني عما عداه، كما نبه عليه بقوله: {غني عن العالمين} <آل عمران/97>، وإذا قيل: هو منفرد بوحدانيته، فمعناه: هو مستغن عن كل تركيب وازدواج تنبيها أنه مخالف للموجودات كلها. وفريد: واحد، وجمعه فرادى، نحو: أسير وأسارى. قال: {ولقد جئتمونا فرادى} <الأنعام/94>.

Lisan Al-Arab
Ibn Manzour

Allah is Al-Fard, and indeed individuated from the rest of creation by ITs own Divine Command.

Remark 2. That is why in this Rahi’s (Author’s) English translation the verb individuated was used, to show deliberate Divine Volition to be discerned from all else.

لسان العرب، الإصدار 2.02 – لابن المنظور الإفريقي.
المجلد الثالث >> (د) >> حرف الدَّال المهملة >> فصل الفاء

الله تعالى وتقدس هو الفَرْدُ، وقد تَفَرَّدَ بالأَمر دون خلقه.
الليث: والفَرْد في صفات الله تعالى هو الواحد الأَحد الذي لا نظير له ولا مثل ولا ثاني.
قال الأَزهري: ولم أَجده في صفات الله تعالى التي وردت في السنَّة، قال: ولا يوصف الله تعالى إِلا بما وصف به نفسه أَو وصفه به النَّبيّ -صلى الله عليه وسلم- قال: ولا أَدري من أَين جاء به الليث.
والفرد: الوتر، والجمع أَفراد وفُرادَى، على غير قياس، كأَنَّه جمع فَرْدانَ.
ابن سيده: الفَرْدُ نصف الزَّوْج، والفرد: المَنْحَرُ والجمع فِرادٌ؛ أَنشد ابن الأَعرابي:
تَخَطُّفَ الصَّقْرِ فِرادَ السِّرْبِ *
والفرد أَيضاً: الذي لا نظير له، والجمع أَفراد.
يقال: شيء فَرْدٌ وفَرَدٌ وفَرِدٌ وفُرُدٌ وفارِدٌ.
والمُفْرَدُ: ثورُ الوَحْشِ؛ وفي قصيدة كعب:
تَرْمِي الغُيوبَ بَعَيْنَي مُفْرَدٍ لَهِقٍ *
المفرد: ثور الوحش شبَّه به النَّاقة.
وثور فُرُدٌ وفارِدٌ وفَرَدٌ وفَرِدٌ وفَرِيد، كله بمعنى: مُنْفَرِدٍ.
وسِدْرَةٌ فارِدَةٌ: انفردت عن سائر السِّدْر.
وفي الحديث: ((لا تُعَدُّ فارِدَتُكُم)).
يعني: الزَّائدة على الفريضة أي: لا تضم إِلى غيرها فتعد معها وتُحْسَب.

Missing Alif-Lam of Ahad

If you read the verses in Surah 112 carefully you notice that first Divine Attribute/Name Ahad is mentioned without Alif-Lam (Al or ‘the’ article) while Al-Samad has the said article:

 قل هو الله أَحد الله ال صمَد

The reason for this is known (not widely though):

Ahad is One which needs nothing else for its Oneness i.e. it is One even though there is no counting to even have the concept of Two and for that matter there is no intellect to even cognize the concept of more than one! Therefore the article “The” which indicates singling out a particular member of a collection of entities, is omitted.

Fard is One which needs the existence of others, and it is individuated away from the remaining all else. Fard does not apply, has no concept or meaning, if it is by itself, it needs others for the process of discernment to properly take place.

As was mentioned:

Al-Asna Fi Sharh Al-Asma Allah Al-Husna Wa Sifatihi


Difference between Fard and Ahad:

Al-Ahadiyya (Ahad) is cognized free of “all else” (all other than itself), however Al-Fardiyya (Fard) could not be cognized unless “all else” is understood.
Like unto Khaliq (Creator) or Raziq (Sustainer) who could not be understood unless Creation and Sustenance is understood.
As such is Fard which could not be understood unless by all others that were discerned and distinguished against itself. (all else that is not itelf)

الأسنى في شرح اسماء الله الحسنى و صفاته


و الفرق بينه (فرد) و بين أحد
الأحدية تفهم من غير توهم مغاير ولا تفهم الفردية إلا مع توهم مغاير.
كخالق و رازق و لا يفهم معناها إلا بتوهم معنى اخلق و الرزق.
كذلك الفرد لا يفهم إلا بتوهم منفرد عنه.

© 2015-2002,  Dara O Shayda

One: Ahad(أَحد) vs. Wahid(واحد)



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There are two similar words for One in the language of Arab, both applied towards Tauhid (Divine Oneness):

Wahid: this is a category of one which has no similar, nor copy, discerned from all else, and does not cease to be as such.

Ahad: this is a category of one which allows for nothing else in relation to one, i.e. there is nothing else and only “the one” is extant.

Wahid used when there are many things, including counting, and other extant entities that are only one in some form or fashion. For example, you could say Allah is Wahid, and that thing is also Wahid meaning only one like it.

Ahad used when there is nothing only the one is extant i.e. there is only one Allah and nothing else. Nothing else exists, not even number one, not even any form of thought or intellect to muse this oneness. You can say Allah is Ahad but you cannot say that thing is Ahad, only applicable to Allah. This is so since in the language of Arab Ahad is used in a negative connotation e.g. “not even one (Ahad) person came to me” it is not permissible to say one (Ahad) person came to me. Non-negative usage reserved only for Allah.

In order to cognize these concepts, know that the Divine Presence has many modalities i.e. modes of existence, like unto a single beam of light with a wide varying spectrum, and yet the same light.

There is modality of Divine Presence when there is Allah and no one else (Ahad Mode), and there is equally another modality of Divine Presence that unique Allah is present and so are other unique things (Wahid Mode).

لسان العرب
 ابن منظور

الواحدُ: أَول عدد الحساب

 يقال: رأَيته وحده وجلس وحده أَي منفرداً، وهو منصوب عند أَهل الكوفة على الظرف

والتوحيد: الإِيمان بالله وحده لا شريك له. والله الواحِدُ الأَحَدُ: ذو الوحدانية والتوحُّدِ. ابن سيده: والله الأَوحدُ والمُتَوَحِّدُ وذُو الوحْدانية، ومن صفاته الواحد الأَحد؛ قال أَبو منصور وغيره: الفرق بينهما أَن الأَحد بني لنفي ما يذكر معه من العدد، تقول ما جاءَني أَحد، والواحد اسم بني لِمُفْتَتَح العدد، تقول جاءني واحد من الناس، ولا تقول جاءني أَحد؛ فالواحد منفرد بالذات في عدم المثل والنظير، والأَحد منفرد بالمعنى؛ وقيل: الواحد هو الذي لا يتجزأُ ولا يثنى ولا يقبل الانقسام ولا نظير له ولا مثل ولا يجمع هذين الوصفين إِلا الله عز وجل؛ وقال ابن الأَثير: في أَسماء الله تعالى الواحد، قال: هو الفرد الذي لم يزل وحده ولم يكن معه آخر؛ قال الأَزهري: وأَما اسم الله عز وجل أَحد فإِنه لا يوصف شيء بالأَحدية غيره؛ لا يقال: رجل أَحَد ولا درهم أَحَد كما يقال رجل وحَدٌ أَي فرد لأَن أَحداً صفة من صفات الله عز وجل التي استخلصها لنفسه ولا يشركه فيها شيء؛ وليس كقولك الله واحد وهذا شيء واحد؛ ولا يقال شيء أَحد وإِن كان بعض اللغويين قال: إِن الأَصل في الأَحَد وحَد؛ قال اللحياني: قال الكسائي: ما أَنت من الأَحد أَي من الناس؛ وأَنشد:
ولـيس يَطْـلُـبُـنـي فــي أَمـــرِ غـــانِـــيَة        إِلا كَعَمروٍ، وما عَمروٌ من الأَحَدِ
قال: ولو قلت ما هو من الإِنسان، تريد ما هو من الناس، أَصبت. وأَما قول الله عز وجل: قل هو الله أَحد الله الصمَد؛ فإِن أَكثر القراء على تنوين أَحد. وقد قرأَه بعضهم بترك التنوين وقرئ بإِسكان الدال: قل هو الله أَحَدْ، وأَجودها الرفع بإِثبات التنوين في المرور وإِنما كسر التنوين لسكونه وسكون اللام من الله، ومن حذف التنوين فلالتقاء الساكنين أَيضاً.
وأَما قول الله تعالى: هو الله، فهو كناية عن ذكر الله المعلوم قبل نزول القرآن؛ المعنى: الذي سأَلتم تبيين نسبه هو الله، وأَحد مرفوع على معنى هو الله أَحد، وروي في التفسير: أَن المشركين قالوا للنبي، صلى الله عليه وسلم: انْسُبْ لنا ربَّك، فأَنزل الله عز وجل: قل هو الله أَحد الله الصمد.
قال الأَزهري: وليس معناه أَنّ لله نَسَباً انْتَسَبَ إِليه ولكن معناه نفي النسب عن اللهِ تعالى الواحدِ، لأَن الأَنْسابَ إِنما تكون للمخلوقين، والله تعالى صفته أَنه لم يلد ولداً ينسب إِليه، ولم يولد فينتسب إِلى ولد، ولم يكن له مثل ولا يكون فيشبه به تعالى الله عن افتراء المفترين، وتقدَّس عن إِلحادِ المشركين، وسبحانه عما يقول الظالمون والجاحدون علوّاً كبيراً. قال الأَزهري: والواحد من صفات الله تعالى، معناه أَنه لا ثاني له، ويجوز أَن ينعت الشيء بأَنه واحد، فأَما أَحَد فلا ينعت به غير الله تعالى لخلوص هذا الاسم الشريف له، جل ثناؤه. وتقول: أَحَّدْتُ الله تعالى ووحَّدْته، وهو الواحدُ الأَحَد. وروي عن النبي، صلى الله عليه وسلم، أَنه قال لرجل ذَكَرَ اللَّهَ وأَومَأَ بإِصْبَعَيْهِ فقال له: أَحِّدْ أَحِّدْ أَي أَشِرْ بِإِصْبَعٍ واحدة. قال: وأَما قول الناس: تَوَحَّدَ الله بالأَمر وتفرّد، فإِنه وإِن كان صحيحاً فإِني لا أُحِبُّ أَن أَلْفِظَ به في صفة الله تعالى في المعنى إِلا بما وصف به نفسه في التنزيل أَو في السُّنَّة، ولم أَجد المُتَوَحِّدَ في صفاته ولا المُتَفَرِّدَ، وإِنما نَنْتَهِي في صفاته إِلى ما وصف به نفسه ولا نُجاوِزُه إِلى غيره لمَجَازه في العربية. وفي الحديث: أَن الله تعالى لم يرض بالوَحْدانيَّةِ لأَحَدٍ غيره، شَرُّ أُمَّتي الوَحْدانيُّ المُعْجِبُ بدينه المُرائي بعَمَلِه، يريد بالوحْدانيِّ المُفارِقَ للجماعة المُنْفَرِدَ بنفسه، وهو منسوب إِلى الوَحْدةِ والانفرادِ، بزيادة الأَلف والنون للمبالغة.

 وقوله: لَسْتُنَّ كأَحَد من النساءِ، لم يقل كَواحِدة لأَن أَحداً نفي عام للمذكر والمؤنث والواحد والجماعة.

 الأَصمعي: تقول العرب: ما جاءَني من أَحد ولا تقول قد جاءَني من أَحد،

 الفراء قال: أَحد يكون للجمع والواحد في النفي؛ ومنه قول الله عز وجل: فما منكم من أَحد عنه حاجزين؛ جُعِل أَحد في موضع جمع؛ وكذلك قوله: لا نفرّق بين أَحد من رسله؛ فهذا جمع لأَن بين لا تقع إِلا على اثنين فما زاد.

اللحياني: يقال وَحِدَ فلان يَوْحَدُ أَي بقي وحده

قال أَبو بكر: وحده منصوب في جميع كلام العرب إِلا في ثلاثة مواضع، تقول: لا إِله إِلا الله وحده لا شريك له، ومررت بزيد وحده؛ وبالقوم وحدي. قال: وفي نصب وحده ثلاثة أَقوال: قال جماعة من البصريين هو منصوب على الحال، وقال يونس: وحده هو بمنزلة عنده، وقال هشام: وحده منصوب على المصدر، وحكى وَحَدَ يَحِدُ صَدَر وَحْدَه على هذا الفعل.

وأَوحَدَه اللَّهُ: جعله واحد زمانه؛ وفلانٌ أَوْحَدُ أَهل زمانه وفي حديث عائشة تصف عمر، رضي الله تعالى عنهما: للهِ أُمٌّ حَفَلَتْ عليه ودَرَّتْ، لقد أَوْحَدَت به أَي ولَدَتْه وحِيداً فَرِيداً لا نظير له،


Origin of both Wahid and Ahad was Wahad: Waw+Ha+Dal.


When Waw was replaced by Alif, it became Ahad (see the Lisan Al-Arab reference above).

Referring and learning from Kitab Al-Waw of Ibn Arabi, the Waw is recursive i.e. it is used in its own definition i.e. in spoken form:

و or Waw = Waw+Alif+Waw or واو


Ibn Arabi
Kitab Al-Waw

And the Spoken Surat (Constraint to form the acoustics) of Al-Waw is as follows: The first Waw is the Waw of Al-Huwiya (IT-ness, That-ness) and the Ha (‘h’ sound form the throat) of Hu-Wa is immixed (graded) deep within the Waw as is the number 5 (graded) within number 6. And the other Waw i.e. the Waw of Al-Kaun (Existence) emerged within the Al-Kaun or Al-Mukawwin (Formative Creator) (as you wish to use either word)… The reality of Huwa is the opposite of being observable therefore Huwa is the Absolute Absence (Al-Ghayb Al-Mutlaq).

الميم و الواو و النون
من مجموعة رسائل
الشيخ محيى الدين بن عربي

وصورة نطق الواو هكذا ـ واوـ فالواو الاولى واو الهوية والهاء مدرجة فيها اندراج الخمسة في الستة فأغنت عنها والواو الاخرى واو الكون فظهرت الواو في الكون والمكون ان شئت واو الهوية ثم هي الواسطة التي بين الهوية والكون وهي غابت من أجل الأمر فإنها لو ظهرت عند الأمر لما ظهر الكون إذ لا طاقة له على مشاهدة الهو وكانت تزول حقيقة الهو فإن الهو يناقض الشهادة فهو الغيب المطلق.

Ibn Arabi

Therefore if you viewed the Al-Kaun (Existence) from the point of view of Surat (Constraint to Shape) you might have said: ‘Adaman (Allah ‘in-absentia’) since indeed the Surat (Constraint that forms) is that of Al-Huwa (The Divine IT, third person absent pronoun).

Dara: Al-Huwa (IT) is the absentia modality of the Divine Presence, wherein there is no direct presence of the Divine Being to be seen or touched, but the departure of the direct presence re-shaped and formed the universe i.e. Suart, in such fashion that: The Creator was here thus invented fanciful inventions and then disappeared out of direct presence and view.

And if you viewed the Al-Kaun (Existence) from the point of view of Dhat (Discerning Essence) you might have said: Wujudan (Being-ness); and the one that is not cognizant of these two (Waw(s)), as well, is not cognizant of the Partitioner between these two Waw i.e. the Alif—This Waw is not that Waw.

Dara: Waw for Al-Huwa (The Divine IT) is the distant-view (Macro), indeed a distinct Surat (Constraint), that the Divine Presence has left behind in absentia which has formed the engineering processes knowledges and materials of the universe i.e. fully automated self-operational autonamous universe. Waw for Al-Kaun (Kaf+Waw+Nun) is the near-view (Micro), another completely different Surat (Constraint), that the Divine Dhat (Discerning Essence) has imposed upon this universe i.e. creation and ontology of all things in existence. These two views i.e. one macro and one micro, have to be separated by a veil so they do not mix and stay partitioned, and that partitioning agent is Alif.

الميم و الواو و النون
من مجموعة رسائل
الشيخ محيى الدين بن عربي
فإذا نظرت الكون من حيث الصورة قلت عدما فإن الصورة هي الهو واذا نظرته من حيث ذاته قلت وجودا ولا تعرف ذلك ما لم تعرف الفاصل بين الواوين وهو الألف فيعرفك أن هذا ليس هذا

Inferring from the concept of Ibn Arabi, if we removed the two distinct Waw, discerned by Alif sandwiched in the middle, all is left is only Alif and the word Wahad becomes Ahad:


One Waw stood for Huwa (Divine ITness, That-ness) and the other for existence (Kaun). Therefore the removal of the Waw indicates the Modality of Dhat (Divine Inmost Essence) and there is nothing not even pointing or any concepts to describe Allah, and that is Ahad Mode of Divine Presence.

© 2015-2002,  Dara O Shayda

Ibn Arabi: Kitab Al-Waw: كتاب الميم و الواو و النون


Kitab Al-Waw (‘w’ sound in Arabic)
Ibn Arabi

Discussion    Join

Kitab Al-Waw (Book of ‘W’ letter)
Kitab Al-Jalala: Kalimat Allah

See Also:

Kitab Al-Waw (Book of ‘W’ letter)

(The Lofty Spiritualities descended, a noble descention indeed, by means of  the secrets of Waw) And this is also an indication of existence of Surat (Constraint to shape) within us as was said by peace be upon him: Inna Allah created Adam according to/upon ITs Surat (Constraint).

Remark: Pronoun ITs‘ refers to Allah in the case of Ibn Arabi writings i.e. Allah created Adam according to ITs own Divine Surat (Constraints to shape and form). Click here for Imam Razi’s interpretation of the Hadith.

Remark: Waw is phonetically comprised of Waw+Alif+Waw. Kaun is made up of Ka+Waw+Nun.

Between the two Waw, is placed, the veil of Ahadiyat (Oneness) i.e. Alif, and consequently emerged the ‘Ain (An instantiation) of Al-Kaun (Existence) according to the Surat (Constraint) of the Al-Mukawwin (Formative Creator) and thus in between is the Veil of Divine Greatness and Ahadiyat (Oneness) for the purpose of discernment of the Dhawāt (Discerning Essences, pl Dhat).

الميم و الواو و النون
من مجموعة رسائل
الشيخ محيى الدين بن عربي
وهي الدليل أيضا لنا على وجود الصورة فينا من قوله صلى الله عليه وسلم (ان الله خلق آدم على صورته) وبينهما حجاب الأحدية الذي هو الألف فظهر عين الكون على صورة المكون وحال بينهما حجاب العزة الاحمى والاحدية العظمى فتميزت الذوات

Therefore if you viewed the Al-Kaun (Existence) from the point of view of Surat (Constraint to Shape) you might have said: ‘Adaman (Allah ‘in-absentia’) since indeed the Surat (Constraint that forms) is that of Al-Huwa (The Divine IT, third person absent pronoun).

Dara: Al-Huwa (IT) is the absentia modality of the Divine Presence, wherein there is no direct presence of the Divine Being to be seen or touched, but the departure of the direct presence re-shaped and formed the universe i.e. Suart, in such fashion that: The Creator was here thus invented fanciful inventions and then disappeared out of direct presence and view.

And if you viewed the Al-Kaun (Existence) from the point of view of Dhat (Discerning Essence) you might have said: Wujudan (Being-ness); and the one that is not cognizant of these two (Waw(s)), as well, is not cognizant of the Partitioner between these two Waw i.e. the Alif—This Waw is not that Waw.

Dara: Waw for Al-Huwa (The Divine IT) is the distant-view (Macro), indeed a distinct Surat (Constraint), that the Divine Presence has left behind in absentia which has formed the engineering processes knowledges and materials of the universe i.e. fully automated self-operational autonamous universe. Waw for Al-Kaun (Kaf+Waw+Nun) is the near-view (Micro), another completely different Surat (Constraint), that the Divine Dhat (Discerning Essence) has imposed upon this universe i.e. creation and ontology of all things in existence. These two views i.e. one macro and one micro, have to be separated by a veil so they do not mix and stay partitioned, and that partitioning agent is Alif.

الميم و الواو و النون
من مجموعة رسائل
الشيخ محيى الدين بن عربي
فإذا نظرت الكون من حيث الصورة قلت عدما فإن الصورة هي الهو واذا نظرته من حيث ذاته قلت وجودا ولا تعرف ذلك ما لم تعرف الفاصل بين الواوين وهو الألف فيعرفك أن هذا ليس هذا.

And the Spoken Surat (Constraint to form the acoustics) of Al-Waw is as follows: The first Waw is the Waw of Al-Huwiya (IT-ness, That-ness) and the Ha (‘h’ sound form the throat) of Hu-Wa is immixed (graded) deep within the Waw as is the number 5 (graded) within number 6. And the other Waw i.e. the Waw of Al-Kaun (Existence) emerged within the Al-Kaun or Al-Mukawwin (Formative Creator) (as you wish to use either word)… The reality of Huwa is the opposite of being observable therefore Huwa is the Absolute Absence (Al-Ghayb Al-Mutlaq).
الميم و الواو و النون
من مجموعة رسائل
الشيخ محيى الدين بن عربي

وصورة نطق الواو هكذا ـ واوـ فالواو الاولى واو الهوية والهاء مدرجة فيها اندراج الخمسة في الستة فأغنت عنها والواو الاخرى واو الكون فظهرت الواو في الكون والمكون ان شئت واو الهوية ثم هي الواسطة التي بين الهوية والكون وهي غابت من أجل الأمر فإنها لو ظهرت عند الأمر لما ظهر الكون إذ لا طاقة له على مشاهدة الهو وكانت تزول حقيقة الهو فإن الهو يناقض الشهادة فهو الغيب المطلق.

Kitab Al-Jalala: Kalimat Allah
From the treatise of Ibn Arabi

Know that she, the Divine Kalimat (Word, Verbiage) for Allah, is comprised of six letters:


Four are patent when written:

1.    Alif Al-Awaliaya (First-Most, Primordial) Alif the first letter in the alphabet of the Arab
2.    Lum of Ghayb (Unseen, Unobservable) and she is concealed
3.    Lum patent which is for the Shahada (Observable Universe), spoken Mushaddad (Repeated LL sound)
4.    Ha of Huwiya (IT-ness, That-ness)

Four are patent when spoken:

1.    Alif of Divine Power (Qudra) to set destinies and to shape and form all objects
2.    Lum patent for Shahada (Observable Universe)
3.    Alif for Dhat (Discernable Essence)
4.    Ha of Huwiya (IT-ness, That-ness)

One of the Harf (Divine Alphabet) does not emerge patent neither within the written or spoken linguistics of Allah, however there are implicit links to it, and that is the Waw of Huwa.

Lum is for the middle-buffer universe i.e Barzakh (Barrier) subject to the actions of the Aql (Intellect).

Ha is for the Ghayb (Unseen and Concealed i.e. Unobservable). Waw: One for the Shahada (Observable Universe), the other for Allah rendering the Ghayb Al-Mutlaq (Absolute Absence). The Waw for Shahada (Observable Universe) is oral (i.e. pronounced by the pressing motion of the lips (the utmost boundary of human breathing system) and no participation of the tongue or the teeth) and therefore applies not to Allah (for Allah does not appear within this universe); the other Waw which does not appear either written or spoken refers to Allah i.e. Ghayb (Unseen and Concealed i.e. Unobservable).

كتاب الجلالة
و هو
كلمة الله
من مجموعة رسائل
الشيخ محيى الدين بن عربي

واعلموا أنها تحوي من الحروف على ستة أحرف وهي: ا ل ل ا ه و، أربعة منها ظاهرة في الرقم وهي الألف الأولية ولام بدء الغيب وهي المدغمة ولام بدء الشهادة وهي المنطوق بها مشددة وهاء الهوية.
وأربعة منها ظاهرة في اللفظ وهي ألف القدرة ولام بدء الشهادة وألف الذات وهاء الهو وحرف واحد منها لا ظاهر في اللفظ ولا في الرقم لكنه مدلول عليه وهو واو الهو في اللفظ وواو الهوية في الرقم وانحصرت حروفه، واللام للعالم الأوسط وهو البرزخ وهو معقول والهاء للغيب والواو لعالم الشهادة ولما كان الله هو الغيب المطلق وكان فيه واو عالم الشهادة لأنها شفهية ولا يتمكن ظهورها في الله، لهذا لم تظهر في الرقم ولا في اللفظ فكانت غيبا في الغيب وهذا هو الغيب ومن هنا صح شرف الحس على العقل فإن الحس اليوم غيب في العقل والعقل هو الظاهر فإذا كان غدا في الدار الآخرة كانت الدولة في الحظيرة الإلهية وكثيب الرؤية للحس فنظرت إليه الأبصار وكانت الغايات للأبصار والبدايات للعقول ولولا الغايات ما التفت أحد إلى البدايات فإنظر ما هنا من الأسرار وهو أن الآخرة أشرف من الدنيا قال الله تعالى ((تُرِيدُونَ عَرَضَ الدُّنْيَا وَاللّهُ يُرِيدُ الآخِرَةَ)) 67 سورة الأنفال، وقال تعالى ((وَالْآخِرَةُ خَيْرٌ وَأَبْقَى)) 17 سورة الأعلى.

Dara: This is the definition of the Waw:

28:70. Wa: Hu is Allah. No deity other than Hu. To Hu be praise, at the first and at the last

وَهُوَ اللَّهُ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا هُوَ لَهُ الْحَمْدُ فِي الْأُولَى وَالْآَخِرَةِ

Waw is a cyclic phoneme in the language of the Arab i.e. starts with a ‘w’ sound  and ends with the same sound ‘w’ i.e. ‘the first and at the last’ which refers to the first Waw and the final Waw and Alif in the between to veil one against the other as was mentioned by the Ibn Arabi above. Therefore the emergence of Waw by any creature elevates its importance as though a flag posted on the creature written upon: Important Creature Identified by Allah:


53:1 Wa the star when it goes down (sets)

وَالنَّجْمِ إِذَا هَوَى

Association of the Wa by the star is to aggrandize to make it even more observable that other members of the creation, as Allah loves and wills, and the agent alphabet that does elevate the status of that creature is Waw:

100:1. Wa the galloping panting quadruped-animals (four-legged animals which pant (noisy expirations) when gallop e.g. horse or dog)

وَالْعَادِيَاتِ ضَبْحًا

The extraordinary molecular breathing apparatus of the galloping animals when they pant is elevated to the mighty importance, Allah loves the breathing inventinveness of such animals, by Waw thus serves as a vector pointing towards Absent Divine Presence…


Wa the Harf (Divine Alphabet) the agent that operates upon any member of the creation Allah loves or Allah holds with regard or assigns immense importance to. This is the agent alphabet that elevates and thus renders the importance of an entity—High Complexity.

Without Waw universe is flat i.e. there is no variation of importance amongst the objects, and how can there be a Divine Lover without preferences? How can the universe point to a Singleton Lover unless there is the asymmetry of ITs Divine Love?


Ta’rifat Jurjani
Dhat for any object

Dhat is what specializes or discerns something from all else.

Difference between the Dhat and Shakhs is that Dhat is more general than that of Shakhs i.e. Dhat is applicable for both corporeal or otherwise but Shakhs is only applicable to the corporeal.

التعريفات  الجرجاني
باب الذال
الذاتي لكل شيء
ما يخصه ويميزه عن جميع ما عداه.
وقيل: ذات الشيء: نفسه وعينه، وهو لا يخلو عن العرض، والفرق بين الذات والشخص: أن الذات أعم من الشخص، لأن الذات تطلق على الجسم وغيره، والشخص لا يطلق إلا على الجسم.

© 2009-2002,  Dara O Shayda

‘Iyy: أَيّ

As we read in an earlier post the ‘Aya means a distinction mark, however add to that a component of directionality i.e. a vector pointing at something. Actually all markers e.g. signpost are vectorial in nature i.e. they point at something.

This component of directionality has indeed entered into the language of Qur’an:


1. ‘Iyya-Ka : Point at a person in front of you

2. ‘Iyya-Hu: Point at a person in a distance

3. ‘Iyya-Ya: Point at your own self

4. ‘Iyya-Na: Point at an ensemble of people with yourself at their midst

5. ‘Iyya-Hum: Point at a group of people at a distance

6. ‘Iyya-Kum: Point at a group of people in front of you


Lisanul Arab
‘Iyy is a name for directionality.

لسان العرب  ابن منظور
فإِنه جعل أَيّ اسماً للجهة، فلما اجتمع فيه التعريف والتأْنيث منعه الصرف

These vectors or pointers play a crucial role in human cognition namely they point at something incredibly complex with few directional indicators. Example: A person points at moon, you follow the direction of the pointing finger (few bones and skin) and indeed you find a sublime entity. Without that tiny pointing finger the person has to use incredible amount of knowledge information and conversation to convey something about the moon.

Therefore these vectors form the foundation for our cognition.

This entire universe, from a particle to the largest galaxy, form pointers all pointing at Allah!

Place a pre-lingual toddler in front of sea and he or she points at the water! Did the parents teach her how to point? No!

A newly hatched sea-turtle rushes towards the direction of the sea, did the mother teach her how to point at the sea? No!

If you could remove these pointing faculties out of a toddler or a sea-turtle they would cease to be.

But the question remains: How did all these creatures obtain their vectorial faculties? Answer is, they did not obtain them, each entity has a vectorial construct within (or they never could become an entity!), for the main purpose of pointing at Allah, reused re-purposed for many other faculties and processes as well. In a matter of fact, these directional faculties are Irfani, they are forms of knowledge innate and innert thus intrinsic to every entity, without the prerequisite of learning and free of loss i.e. free of unlearning or ignorance.

When you say “I believe in God” or “I do not believe in God”, both equally so, you are pointing at Allah just the same or else would have never entertained such concepts or words! However each expression is a byproduct of an investigation into the vectorial nature of what points from within you towards Allah. Though the words sound contradictory indeed they are the investigations of the same vector, nonetheless, pointing at Allah!