Category Archives: Terminology

Terminologies of Qur’an, Sufis or Arabic grammar

Qabiliyat (Receptiveness): قابلية, قابليت

Salaam Shakir

This writeup below was written, in part, to deal with the Nur concepts you had brought up. The general academia in the West believes that physical light is all well known to the physicists, and it is actually not true. They know some properties of light under very constraint laboratory conditions, much is unknown.

The original problem with the theories about radiation and absorption, is still unresolved. See Feynman’s and Tetrode below.

Basically the emitter of the light knows information from future about the absorber’s receptivity and availability. This is not discussed or known by the current college retail understanding of properties of light and emission and absorption of light.

I then added an image for three entangled rings, to give the new readers/researchers of Sufism to develop a new language to describe Nur. The idea is that remote or near, likely or unlikely, entities could be in full entanglement with each other though free of any actual linkage as in things being in physical touch with each other.

And the concept of physical light, emitter and absorber and machines that emit or absorb lights, could be used to describe the Nur or Allah’s light, per Qur’an well-known verse using a radiating lamp/lantern as an emitter as an optical machine with glass and a lensing alcove and organic fuel, known to the readers. And that is not far from spirituality of our religion and Sufism.

Problem is our useless college education and retail understanding of the Western sciences as absolute truth.

Qabiliyat (Receptiveness)

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“The sun would not radiate if it were alone in space and no other bodies could absorb its radiation.”
Source: H. Tetrode, Zeits, f. Physik 10, 317 (1922)

Wheeler, Feynman
“Tetrode’s idea that the absorber may be an essential element in the mechanism or radiation has been neglected perhaps partly because it appears to conflict with customary notions of causality”
Source: Wheeler, Feynman, “Interaction with the Absorber as the Mechanism of Radiation”, Reviews of Modern Physics, Vol.27 Number 2 and 3, April-July 1945

“If for example I observed through my telescope yesterday evening that star which let us say is 100 lights years away, then not only did I know that the light which it allowed to reach my eyes was emitted 100 years ago, but also the star or individual atoms of it knew already 100 years ago that ‘I’, who then did not even exit, would view it yesterday evening at such and such time…”
Source: H. Tetrode, Zeits, f. Physik 10, 317 (1922)

Thus radiation is not quite an elementary process but rather a consequence of the interaction between a source and absorber.

Definition: Qabil is an absorber of a source’s radiation (Nur).  Or Qabil is receptive to a source’s radiation.

In more technical term: Qabliyat is a complex-quantum, an entanglement comprised of Nur (Light), Qabil (Absorber) and a source.

By complex-quantum we mean an entity with sub-parts that upon any alteration to its sub-parts or even looking at them the entire entity ceases to be irreversibly.

[40:3] The Qabil (Acceptor) of repentance.

َقَابِلِ التَّوْب

In the context of this verse Qabil is the acceptor who is receptive to the repentance emanated from the seeker and seeker being the source of a radiation and absorbed by the Qabil (Allah)!

What Tetrode, Wheeler and Feynman thought about was not just a part of the physics of radiation; they stumbled upon a spiritual entity closely mimicked by the electromagnetic radiation and absorption.

Let’s say the latter in a different way: There is a complex-quantum in Malakut (Realm of Spirits) which has a similar counterpart (as a reflection or projection) within the Mulk (Realm of Corporeality) i.e. there is no radiation source unless there is an absorber!

And this claim of Tetrode can be interpreted from the language of the Qur’an:

[24:35] Allah is the Nur (Light) of the Heavens and the earth: Heavens and earth are the absorbers that are imminently placed on the path the Nur. And the rest of verse talking about the alcove and the lantern is again pushing for the idea that if there is a source of radiation there has to be an absorber for it e.g. the Mishkat (Alcove, Niche).

اللَّهُ نُورُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ مَثَلُ نُورِهِ كَمِشْكَاةٍ فِيهَا مِصْبَاحٌ

39:69 And the Earth will shine with the Nur (Light) of her Lord: Again the earth is the absorber that is placed against the illumination of the Nur (Divine Light).

وَأَشْرَقَتِ الْأَرْضُ بِنُورِ رَبِّهَا

Violation of Causality
As we saw in the above research that for an accelerating charge there are two waves:

1.    Retarded Radiation: Waves propagated forward through time
2.    Advanced Radiation: Waves propagated backwards in time

The Sufis have long claimed that when a Murid (Seeker) recites a Dhikr (Remembrance) e.g. Al-Hamdu (All Perpetual Praise) for Allah, It was all along Allah who remembered ITself and then the person was made to remember Allah i.e. the will to remember Allah in a person traveled backwards from the future to the present, hit the person, and then another wave (remembering Allah) traveled forward in time towards Allah. Or as Tetrode imagined about the far away star: Allah remembered ITself and adored ITself in infinitely past Qidam (Space of all actualities) and knew about the person tonight making Dhikr (Remembrance) i.e. (that knowledge became) a Nur (Light) shone from the infinitely past and altered the future i.e. the person was made to remember Allah.

Isti’dad is the measure of the receptivity/absorption of the Qabil (Receptor) i.e. the absorption rate of the accepting what is emanated from the source. It can be translated into English as ‘measure of preparedness to accept’ or ‘Aptitude to accept’ but we see the Whiteheadian term ‘Appetition’ more befitting i.e. ‘measure of appetite for consuming/absorbing the incoming’.

Ka (‘you’) The Ain (Source Spring, Essence) of all Causality

Sharh-eh Sathiyat by Baqli
Chapter 464
Shat-h of Husari
“Husari within the state of Shat-h said: Adam (The primordial man) was the place/space for all causality! By means of him (as an instrument) all causality is accessed! As was said: Indeed for you there (Paradise) might not be any hunger or nakedness [20:118]. Otherwise in presence of Allah how could there be any trace of hunger and thirst?”

َإِنَّ لَكَ أَلَّا تَجُوعَ فِيهَا وَلَا تَعْرَى

In other words Adam was such a terrific force of causality that indeed it required an edict from Allah to prevent his own causality to harm him!

Note: The verse does not say La-Kum (For ‘you’ plural) it says La-Ka (for ‘you’ singular male gender). So the source or the portal for all causality was Ka (‘you’ male single).

Let’s extend the above concept: You-ness to I-ness of human being is the place/portal where all the causality of the cosmos generated and passed through. Let’s examine this claim with what Tetrode said earlier:

“If for example I observed through my telescope yesterday evening that star which let us say is 100 lights years away, then not only did I know that the light which it allowed to reach my eyes was emitted 100 years ago, but also the star or individual atoms of it knew already 100 years ago that ‘I’, who then did not even exit, would view it yesterday evening at such and such time…”
Source: H. Tetrode, Zeits, f. Physik 10, 317 (1922)

What makes the Tetrode’s concept work and at that in such a unique way is not the radiation itself but the I-ness of the observer in this universe. If this I-ness is removed the universe will be stripped of its causality i.e. immediately destroyed.

©2008-2002,  Dara O Shayda

Adab (Etiquette) of Sorrower : ادب غم خواران

Adab (Etiquette) of Sorrower

ادب غم خواران

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See Also:

Haqiqa 1 (Reality of how this life operates)

Azizam (My Dearest) know that you were born in tears, and you shall depart this life in throes of death, and in between nothing but medley of joys and sorrows, some days with sense and logic, and other days senseless and remote from your mind:

3:140. Such days (of varying fortunes) We give to people in turns

وَتِلۡكَ ٱلۡأَيَّامُ نُدَاوِلُهَا بَيۡنَ ٱلنَّاسِ وَلِيَعۡلَمَ ٱللَّهُ ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ

Ishara 1 (Pointing)

Imagine people attending a banquette, goblets of joys and sorrows served one after the other, no matter where the guests sitting, no matter what status or honor!

Know that the day of joy and the day of sorrow, are but the same day. It is the mighty ambiguity engine within your Nafs (Self) which distinguishes between these days.

Surat (Shaped Constraint Reality of how human life operates in synchronicity with the other universe)

The odd feelings of joy and sorrow, are the appearance of a Non-Self, touching the verges of ‘you’ from outside the capsule of your Self (Nafs):

53:43: Wa Anna-hu Huwa (IT); (Huwa or IT, Agent Doer omitted) Adh-haka (made/caused to laugh) and made/cause to sob

وَأَنَّهُ هُوَ أَضْحَكَ  وَ أَبْكَى

Joy and sorrow are singularities, perforations on the impossible boundary between this universe and the other, through which the emoting vectors appear: one endpoint human being and the other endpoint Allah, glancing along which the ‘feelings’ of joy or sorrow ‘felt’.

The day of joy and the day of sorrow, have two entities in common, as in two endpoints:

1. You
2. That Divine Beloved, Allah

The rest are cosmetics of the life of this world!

Haqiqa 2 (Reality of how record of the living operates)

57:22. No misfortune can happen on earth or in your souls but is recorded in a decree before We bring it into existence: That is truly easy for Allah.

مَآ أَصَابَ مِن مُّصِيبَةٍ۬ فِى ٱلۡأَرۡضِ وَلَا فِىٓ أَنفُسِكُمۡ إِلَّا فِى ڪِتَـٰبٍ۬ مِّن قَبۡلِ أَن نَّبۡرَأَهَآ‌ۚ إِنَّ ذَٲلِكَ عَلَى ٱللَّهِ يَسِيرٌ۬

Ishara 2 (Pointing)

Whether frolic or melancholy, Allah has chosen you as a companion! Joy and sorrow are like digits touching your skin as though the beloved companion saying: But I am here with you!

Remark: You do not, cannot choose Allah for a companion, only Allah chooses you as a companion, to claim otherwise is supreme arrogance. To say to treat Allah like a friend is arrogance, to wish that Allah treats you like a friend is better language, or to wish Allah chooses you as a close companion is better:


And the Ghira of Allah (keeping a servant only for ITself/Himself) is their concealment:

My close-friends (Aulia’) are under my cloak (hidden) no one knows them but Me.

إحياء علوم الدين     أبو حامد الغزالي
وغيرة الله تعالى على أوليائه تأبى إلا إخفاءهم كما قال تعالى: أوليائي تحت قبابي لا يعرفهم غيري.

Haqiqa 3 (Reality of how sorrowing operates)

The purpose of this companionship is nothing but offering knowledge and guidance, specially in sorrows:

64:11. No kind of calamity can occur, except by the leave of Allah. and if any one believes in Allah, ((Allah)) guides his heart (aright): for Allah knows all things.

مَآ أَصَابَ مِن مُّصِيبَةٍ إِلَّا بِإِذۡنِ ٱللَّهِ‌ۗ وَمَن يُؤۡمِنۢ بِٱللَّهِ يَہۡدِ قَلۡبَهُ ۥ‌ۚ وَٱللَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَىۡءٍ عَلِيمٌ۬

Adab of Sorrower

Azizam when a guest knocks at your door, you tidy up your house and prepare yourself in best manner of conduct and dress in best fashions to please and to honor, per protocol and etiquette, same way when Azizat (Your Dearest Beloved) arrives at the door of your heart, and when IT knocks at your heart with joys and sorrows, thus prepare your heart and mind to receive this guest of mighty honor and royalty.

Adab 1 (Etiquette of language)

89:15. Now, as for man, when his Lord trieth him, giving him honour and gifts, then saith he, (puffed up), “My Lord hath honored me.”
فَأَمَّا ٱلۡإِنسَـٰنُ إِذَا مَا ٱبۡتَلَٮٰهُ رَبُّهُ ۥ فَأَكۡرَمَهُ ۥ وَنَعَّمَهُ ۥ فَيَقُولُ رَبِّىٓ أَكۡرَمَنِ

89:16 But when He trieth him, restricting his subsistence for him, then saith he (in despair), “My Lord hath humiliated me!”
وَأَمَّآ إِذَا مَا ٱبۡتَلَٮٰهُ فَقَدَرَ عَلَيۡهِ رِزۡقَهُ ۥ فَيَقُولُ رَبِّىٓ أَهَـٰنَنِ

Cure for such ailment of improper language in presence of the Divine Beloved: honoring the orphans, insist on feeding the hungry, leave others’ inheritance untouched, love not to accumulate:

89:17. Nay, nay! but ye honor not the orphans!
كَلَّا‌ۖ بَل لَّا تُكۡرِمُونَ ٱلۡيَتِيمَ

89:18. Nor do ye encourage one another to feed the poor!
وَلَا تَحَـٰٓضُّونَ عَلَىٰ طَعَامِ ٱلۡمِسۡكِينِ

89:19. And ye devour inheritance – all with greed
وَتَأۡڪُلُونَ ٱلتُّرَاثَ أَڪۡلاً۬ لَّمًّ۬ا

89:20. And ye love wealth with inordinate love!
وَتُحِبُّونَ ٱلۡمَالَ حُبًّ۬ا جَمًّ۬ا

Adab 2 (Etiquette of language in times of plenty)

When you are in comfort and well to do, do not say I gained all this by my abilities, or education, or hard work, or knowledge or talents:

28:78. He (Qarun/Korah the wealthy Hebrew) said: “This has been given to me because of a certain knowledge which I have.”

قَالَ إِنَّمَآ أُوتِيتُهُ ۥ عَلَىٰ عِلۡمٍ عِندِىٓ‌ۚ

Instead in times of plenty, in times of happiness, say:

27:40. he (Solomon) said: “This is by the Grace of my Lord! to test me whether I am grateful or ungrateful! and if any is grateful, truly his gratitude is (a gain) for his own soul; but if any is ungrateful, truly my Lord is Free of all Needs, Supreme in Honor !”

قَالَ هَـٰذَا مِن فَضۡلِ رَبِّى لِيَبۡلُوَنِىٓ ءَأَشۡكُرُ أَمۡ أَكۡفُرُ‌ۖ وَمَن شَكَرَ فَإِنَّمَا يَشۡكُرُ لِنَفۡسِهِۦ‌ۖ وَمَن كَفَرَ فَإِنَّ رَبِّى غَنِىٌّ۬ كَرِيمٌ۬

Adab 2

Let joy=sorrow and let hope=despair, IT is your Divine Beloved Hu gives, and again IT is the same Beloved Hu takes, there is no one else who takes and there is no one else who gives, be hundred percent assured:

57:23. In order that ye may not despair over matters that pass you by, nor exult over favours bestowed upon you. For Allah loveth not any vainglorious boaster
لِّكَيۡلَا تَأۡسَوۡاْ عَلَىٰ مَا فَاتَكُمۡ وَلَا تَفۡرَحُواْ بِمَآ ءَاتَٮٰڪُمۡ‌ۗ وَٱللَّهُ لَا يُحِبُّ كُلَّ مُخۡتَالٍ۬ فَخُورٍ

Do not be overly confident when all things working for you, and do not be overly depressed in difficult times. Know both circumstances are the same.

Adab 3 : Sabr-un Jamil-un ( Divine Beauty in form of patience)

Sabrun-Jamil means you are beautified while suffering badly due to some hard circumstance, and yet you are dyed by the Divine Beauty since Allah is looking at you attentively and quite closely.

Sabrun Jamilun: Divine Beauty in form of patience

12:18.‘And they (the brothers) brought his (Joseph’) shirt with false blood, (Jacob) said: Indeed your Nafs (Selves) has belittled an affair (a huge crime) and because of that Sabrun-Jamilun (Beautiful Patience)’:

Sabrun-Jamil is patience while in the state of Ridha (Assent, i.e. no complaints).

Q: What is the signature sign of Sabrun-Jamil?
A: There is no unhappiness or anxiety while suffering.

Q: Where does the beauty enters to this patience?
A: Due to the Ma’refa (Cognizance) that for sure Allah is with you like unto a cup that on top is patience (bitter drink) and at the bottom of the cup undisolved honey! I am amazed at the person who is not enduring with patience about the undesirable circumstances since Allah has said: ‘For sure Allah with the patient’ [2:153]

Adab 4

Sorrowing and complaining only to Allah.

12:86. ‘(Jacob) said: my complaints public sorrowing and sorrows are only for Allah, and I know from Allah what you do not know’: Jacob complained ‘Ila (Towards) Allah and not Min (From) Allah, since the one that complains ‘Ila (Towards Allah) indeed shall reach (Allah), and the one that complains Min (From) Allah shall part from Allah.

Jacob was carried comfortably by his Sirr (Divine Observatory) and his soul, that for sure he knew from Allah about the veracity of his circumstances i.e. Allah wished them to be as such and they were not acts of evil men, and that is the meaning of the verse: 12:86. ‘and I know from Allah what you do not know’.

As people beg you for mercy and solace
I beg you to complain to you, and then do listen!

* تفسير لطائف الإشارات / القشيري (ت 465 هـ) مصنف و مدقق
قراءة الآية
فتح صفحة القرآن
الانتقال الى صفحة القرآن
{ قَالَ إِنَّمَآ أَشْكُو بَثِّي وَحُزْنِي إِلَى ٱللَّهِ وَأَعْلَمُ مِنَ ٱللَّهِ مَا لاَ تَعْلَمُونَ }
شكا إلى الله ولم يَشْكُ مِنَ اللَّهِ، ومَنْ شكا إلى الله وَصَلَ، ومن شكا من الله انفصل.
ويقال لمَّا شكا إلى الله وَجَدَ الخَلَفَ من الله.
ويقال كان يعقوبُ – عليه السلام – مُتَحَمِّلاً بنفسه وقلبه، ومستريحاً محمولاً بِسِرِّه وروحه؛ لأنه عَلِمَ من الله – سبحانه – صِدقَ حالِه فقال: { وَأَعْلَمُ مِنَ اللَّهِ مَا لاَ تَعْلَمُونَ } وفي معناه أنشدوا:
إذا ما تمنَّى الناسُ روْحاً وراحةً           تمنَّيْتُ أن أشكو إليكَ فَتَسْمَعَا

12:86. ‘My Bath-thi (Public Sorrows)’: Bath is the worst suffering that its sufferer cannot endure it and broadcast it to the people i.e. going from one person to another complaining.

تفسير روح البيان في تفسير القرآن/ اسماعيل حقي (ت 1127 هـ) مصنف و مدقق
{ قَالَ إِنَّمَآ أَشْكُو بَثِّي وَحُزْنِي إِلَى ٱللَّهِ وَأَعْلَمُ مِنَ ٱللَّهِ مَا لاَ تَعْلَمُونَ }
{ قال انما اشكو بثى } البث اصعب الهم الذى لا يصبر عليه صاحبه فيبثه الى الناس اى ينشره فكأنهم قالوا له ما قالوا بطريق التلسية والاشكاء فقال لهم انى لا اشكو ما بى اليكم او الى غيركم حتى تتصدوا للتسلى وانما اشكو همى { وحزنى الى الله } ملتجأ الى جنابه تضرعا لدى بابه فى دفعه
رازكويم بخلق وخوار شوم           باتو كويم بزر كوار شوم
والحزن اعم من البث فاذا عطف على الخاص يراد به الافراد الباقية فيكون المعنى لا اذكر الحزن العظيم والحزن القليل الا مع الله.

Ibn Ajiba
Jacob did not sorrow for the lack of the Joseph’s physicality, only sorrowed about the lack of Suhud (Observation) of Divine Beauty i.e. Baha’ (Overwhelming Beauty) that made Tajalli (Lucent Manifestation) from Joseph.

12:86. ‘(Jacob) said: my complaints public sorrowing and sorrows are only for Allah’ is one corner of the Sufism’s foundation, even better it is the very essence of Sufism.

تفسير البحر المديد في تفسير القرآن المجيد/ ابن عجيبة (ت 1224 هـ)
الإشارة: لم يتأسف يعقوب عليه السلام على فقد صورة يوسف الحسية، إنما تأسف على فقد ما كان يشاهد فيه من جمال الحق وبهائه، في تجلي يوسف وحسن طلعته البهية، وفي ذلك يقول ابن الفارض:
عَيْني لِغَيْرِ جَمَالِكُمْ لاَ تَنْظُرُ           وسِوَاكمُ فِي خَاطِري لا يَخطرُ
فلما فقد ذلك التجلي الجمالي حزن عليه، وإلا فالأنبياء ـ عليهم الصلاة والسلام ـ أولى بالغنى بالله عما سواه. فإذا حصل للقلب الغنى بالله لم يتأسف على شيء، ولم يحزن على شيء؛ لأنه حاز كل شيء، ولم يفته شيء. ” ماذا فقد من وجده، وما الذي وجد من فقده “. ولله در القائل:
أَنَا الفَقِيرُ إِليْكُمُ والْغَنِيُّ بِكُمُ           وَلَيْس لِي بَعدَكُمُ حِرْصٌ عَلى أَحدِ
وهذا أمر محقق، مذوق عند العارفين؛ أهل الغنى بالله. وقوله: { إنما أشكو بثي وحزني إلى الله }: فيه رفع الهمة عن الخلق، والاكتفاء بالملك الحق، وعدم الشكوى فيما ينزل إلى الخلق… وهو ركن من أركان طريق التصوف، بل هو عين التصوف. وبالله التوفيق.

© 2015-2002,  Dara O Shayda

Thinking: The Best Ibada, ولا عبادة كالتفكر

Thinking: The highest form of Ibada (Servitude for Allah):

‘There is no poverty worse than ignorance, no investment with more return than that of ‘Aql (Intellect), and no Ibada (Servitude for Allah) like unto the Tafakkur (Thinking)’, said the Prophet.

كنز العمال الإصدار 2.01 – للمتقي الهندي
المجلد السادس عشر >> الحكم وجوامع الكلم والأمثال من الإكمال
44135- لا فقر أشد من الجهل، ولا غنى أعود من العقل، ولا عبادة كالتفكر.
(أبو بكر بن كامل في معجمه، وابن النجار – عن الحارث عن علي)


Once you could cease the consumption for a moment, by fasting or silence or solitude, do away with the chatter and distress that accompanies consuming, thoughts appear within the mind, of highest spiritual caliber and most sacred.

Adab (Etiquette) of Sheikh

Salaam everyone

One of most ailing ailments of the heart is the yearning for being recognized by people somehow e.g. I yearn for people to read my writings and send me admiring notes, or call me some lofty titles, or invite me to give talks or form a following for me to lead. These are far away from Islam and its spiritual arts of Sufism.

The  disaster: A Sheikh who calls on Murids (Seekers) to seek his love! As Allah commanded the Prophet:

3:31. Qul (Say): If you (plural) are to love Allah, Fa (Consequently, in this order) follow me Allah shall love you (plural).

قُلْ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ تُحِبُّونَ اللَّهَ فَاتَّبِعُونِي يُحْبِبْكُمُ اللَّهُ وَيَغْفِرْ لَكُمْ ذُنُوبَكُمْ وَاللَّهُ غَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ

It does not say: Follow me so I (Muhammad) to love you or follow me and love me! It is about being a conduit for Allah and people to love each other.

The best example is this book Sheikh Izzed-Din Kashani wrote on Sufism (below), he did not write the book to be famed as a scholar, nor to publish it and make money, nor to be loved and endeared by masses, he wrote the book since the Persians of his time asked him for a non-Arabic Farsi manual for Sufism, since the other manuals were in Arabic and hard for them to read. So he basically wrote a book of terminologies and practices and sayings of the Sufis as a service to the Murids (Seekers), not to be loved and obeyed and followed. Only the psychopath criminal thinks of the religion as such!


Adab (Etiquette) of Sheikh and its virtues
Chapter 5
Misbah Al-Hidaya (Lantern of Guidance)
Izzed-Din Kashani

Discussion   Join

Most virtuous Daraja (Gradation) after the Prophet-hood is being a Sheikh as the representative of the Prophet, calling unto the people towards Allah, in concordance to the ways of the Prophet peace be upon him. Sheikh is such deputy. And therefore such a rank is indeed the most virtuous as was said by the Prophet:

And by Al-Ladhi (That Which) i.e. Allah, at ITs Hand is the person of Muhammad, and if you might, I would take an oath for you, Inna the most loved servants of Allah by Allah are those who make Allah love ITs servants and make the servants to love Allah and they roam upon this earth giving (good) advice.

كنز العمال – للمتقي الهندي
المجلد الثالث >> الإكمال من الأمر بالمعروف والنهي عن المنكر
5565- ألا أخبركم بأقوام ليسوا بأنبياء ولا شهداء؟ يغبطهم يوم القيامة الأنبياء والشهداء بمنازلهم من الله على منابر من نور يرفعون الذين يحببون عباد الله إلى الله، ويحببون الله إلى عباده، ويمشون في الأرض نصحاء، قيل: كيف يحببون عباد الله إلى الله؟ قال: يأمرونهم بما يحب الله وينهونهم عما يكرهه الله، فإذا أطاعوهم أحبهم الله.
(هب) وأبو سعيد النقاش في معجمه وابن النجار عن أنس

Remark: “those who make Allah love ITs servants” the word ‘make’ does not have any measure of control or subjugation, it is the best and simplest word in English to convey the concept of being an instrument to make a servant loved by Allah.

The latter is the meaning of the concept of Sheikh in Sufism.

The intent of the Sheikh is to polish the rustic lusts/desires off the mirror of the Murid’s (Seeker’s) heart, therefore (Murid’s heart) to reflect the rays of the Divine Beauty of the Ahadiyat (Divine Oneness) and the rays of the Momentous/Glorious Samadiyat (Absolute Mastery), to brimfill the goblet of the eyes by such (beautiful) observations and thus place the Mahab-bat (Divine Love) within the heart of the Murid (Seeker of the Divine). (Dara: We love beautiful things, therefore something to become beloved for us we must first see its bedazzling beauty)

Therefore the ‘profession’ of Sheikh is to make Allah the beloved of the Murids (Seekers of the Divine) and vice-a-versa:

3:31. Qul (Say): If you (plural) are to love Allah, Fa (Consequently, in this order) follow me Allah shall love you (plural).

قُلْ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ تُحِبُّونَ اللَّهَ فَاتَّبِعُونِي يُحْبِبْكُمُ اللَّهُ وَيَغْفِرْ لَكُمْ ذُنُوبَكُمْ وَاللَّهُ غَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ

Adab (Etiquette) and duties of the Sheikh towards the Murid (Seeker of the Divine)

As the Murid (Seeker) has an Adab (Etiquette) for the Sheikh i.e. Irada (Willful love to follow), Sheikh also has Adab (Etiquette) for the Murid i.e. right to make Tarbiya (Nurturing). There are fifteen Adabs (Etiquettes) for the Sheikh:

1.    Purity of Intention and absence of all causality: First thing the Sheikh is to do is to interrogate his self to make sure that he does not desire to lead, to be called Sheikh or yearn to be loved—intense feelings as desired much by the Nafs (Self) of every human being. And do so even if he sees his Nafs (Self) already cleansed i.e. to accuse his Self again and again. Since it is quite possible that being loved by people and being the center of attention have been occluded and he could not see these faults. And thus when finds some Murids (Seekers), even if being all sincere, turning to him to seek guidance, he rushes not to their aid! He is paused until upon much turning to Allah and much invocations the veils of ambiguities are removed and vis-à-vis the Divine Cognizance he knows with certainty what Allah’s wish is for these Murids and him. First case: If this affair is all trials and tribulations to test, to safeguard and keep away and invite the Murdis from a distance and as such concealed. Second case: He sees that Allah is pleased for these Murids to be guided by him and therefore he completely takes over the responsibility and preoccupied by it.

2.    Cognizance of Preparedness (Isti’dad): Prior to engaging the Murid (Seeker) the Sheikh must see if the Murid is prepared for Suluk (Voyage) upon the Path of those near to Allah, and if so to invite him according to the wisdom and ways suitable for those close to Allah. And if the Murid is not prepared, to admonish him with the glad tidings of the Gardens and warnings of the Fire. For those prepared and close to Allah to aid them to keep their Sirr (Divine Observatory) clear and discernment of Khatir (Ideas, Notions) i.e. what thoughts are Divine and which are from the devil. Those who are not close to Allah to discipline with worships and physical rituals. In summary to advise and command the Murid (Seeker) to do that which in accordance to their preparedness. And the person who is not competent to do the latter is not suitable for the profession of a Sheikh as the Sheikh Al-Islam said (Suhrawardi?): Amazing! The desert dweller knows each patch of earth and the trees i.e. knows which tree belongs to which earth as every artisan knows its art i.e. the benefits and shortcomings and even the female working the spindle knows the threads and the yarns, and yet so does the Sheikh knows the circumstances of the Murid (Seeker) and what is good and applicable to him.

3.    Complete disinterest in the Murid’s (Seeker’s) wealth: Under no circumstance offer any services for any Murid (Seeker) with even slightest inclination towards any monetary rewards. Tarbiyat (Spiritual Nurturing) and Irshad (Spiritual Directives) are far better than any wealth as has been attributed to the Prophet (Khabar): There is no charity spent more valued than that of spreading some Ilm (Divine Knowledge) amongst the people. If the Murid (Seeker) wishes to do away from all the worldly possessions and liquidate assets for charity, the Sheikh must come up with an alternative proposal such that there are no worries about the duress of financial loss for the Murid (Seeker) i.e. he is not able to endure poverty and might succumb to it. The Prophet peace be upon him allowed Abu Bakr to give away all his wealth to charity, and when there was worry that he would be in stress of the financial loss to retain some. When one of the Murids (Seekers) asked permission of Junaid to spend all his money on charity Junaid did not allow him and said to him: Keep some for your needs for I am not secure about the desires and inclinations of your Nafs (Self) after the remittance of the funds.

4.    Ithār (Altruism, Selflessness): Sheikh must sacrifice, selflessly, all that material gains he enjoys and to cut off personal interests (in daily consumption) so that the altruistic traces are observed by the Murid (Seeker) within the Sheikh and as such the same selfless behavior and sacrifice would become easy for the Murid as well. And if there happens to be some additional provisions coming the Murid’s way he (Murid) would give it away in ease and peace sharing with the needy and poor.

5.     Compliance of action with the words: Sheikh should not instruct or order the Murid (Seeker) to do anything (or abstain from anything) unless and until he himself complies with such order, way in advance of its issuance, so that it would readily be complied with by the Murid (Seeker). As some said: If looking at a person does not benefit you, neither does his word! (i.e. seeing him in action an indication for the veracity of his words). Even for the Sheikh being well to do is the same as living with scantiness, yet it is best for the Murid (Seeker) that the Sheikh sacrifices his personal interests and daily living so that the Murid find it easier to steer away from the consumption and material coveting. As was said by Umar to this regard: The poverty and affluence are two burdens (loads), I do not care which one to carry! (i.e. both are the same or he is the same person given both)

6.     Befriending the weak: Any time the Sheikh could observe a weakness or deviance he ought to be ultra-patient with the Murid (Seeker of the Divine) that might help him to overcome his shortcoming. And this can become second nature to a Sheikh by spending much time amongst the poor and the destitute. When one of the affluent Murids of Ahmad Qalanisi cut off from the worldly life, after some time, there appeared with him some weaknesses. Therefore this Sheikh, anytime made some money, used to send the Murid (Seeker) good foods and pastries saying: He has forsaken the very worldly life that he was so used to, therefore it is most appropriate to befriend him (in his time of need and weakness) and provide for him some provision.

7.    Purification of the words: Sheikh must filter away the desires and lusts out of his words. Since the effect of his words upon the heart of the Murid (Seeker) is that of a seed planted, if the seed is a good one a nice plant sprouts, if the seed is bad then there is no sprouting. The ruin and impurity of the words is the immixing of personal desires with words (addressed to the Murid). There are two ways for the corruption of the words: first the speaker says what the listeners want to hear (marketing savvy), second the speaker feels ‘Ujb (Self-amazement) bedazzled and admiring his own speech! The appearance of the latter within the Nafs (Self) is the worst possible crime a Sheikh can commit. Therefore when Sheikh speaks he needs to clear and filer his personal desires out of the words and as such plant a verbal seed within the heart of the Murid (Seeker) and leave these words under the care of Allah to make them truth and bring them to fruition and safeguard them against the Shaitan (Satan). To get rid of the criminally spoken ‘Ujb (Self-amazement) to observe and study the benevolence of the Divine Gifts and thus to shatter the eyes of the Nafs (Self) and destroy the darkling veil of ‘Ujb (Self-amazement) upon the dawn of the rays of Nur (Divine Light), and to see and find his total existence nothing but a droplet of water tumbling upon the tumults of the resistless waves the sea of Divine Blessings, dissolving to oblivion.

8.    Elevation of the heart to the Divine Presence during the conversations: When the Sheikh attempts to speak to the Murid (Seeker) first he must elevate his heart to the level of the Divine Presence and ask from Allah words that are filled with benefit and goodness for the Murid so that his tongue speaks the truth and much benefit provided for the Murid (Seeker). And as such the speaker is the same as the listener! Once a Sheikh said to his people: I am the same as you listening to my own words! Some of those present within the audience found it strange i.e. how can a speaker listen to his own words same a listener in the crowd, how can the speaker and the listener be equal? One of the listeners that night saw a pearl diver in his dream, fetching pearls from the depth of the ocean and when swam ashore and opened the shells both he and those who did not swam along saw the same pearl i.e. in that moment of observing the never-seen pearl the diver and the spectator at the shore became the same! (Experienced the same)

9.    Speaking with allusions: Anytime the Sheikh observes a defect or undesirable attribute or behavior within the Murid (Seeker of the Divine) he must avoid all direct conversations and confrontations and instead speak to an audience and indirectly address the fault and the issues. This way of advising is closest to the wisdom and best to affect the Murid (Seeker).

10.    Preserving the Divine Secrets of the Murid (Seeker): In occasions Sheikh might see and find with the Murid (Seeker) Divine Gifts and Benevolence and it is the duty of the Sheikh to conceal these gifts and blessings and not to make them public. When in private with the Murid (Seeker) to belittle the importance of these gifts and grants to remind the Murdi (Seeker) that all these are from Allah and not originated from him or her, and all in return the Murid (Seeker) should do is to offer gratitude to Allah, busied in the state of thankfulness, since otherwise any other attention and diversion might diminish or ruin the Divine Gifts:

12:5. Said (the father Jacob): “My (dear) little son! relate not your vision to thy brothers, lest they concoct a plot against you: for Satan is to man an avowed enemy!
قَالَ يَا بُنَيَّ لَا تَقْصُصْ رُؤْيَاكَ عَلَى إِخْوَتِكَ فَيَكِيدُوا لَكَ كَيْدًا إِنَّ الشَّيْطَانَ لِلْإِنْسَانِ عَدُوٌّ مُبِينٌ

19:10. (Zakariya) said: “O my Lord! give me a Sign.” “Your Sign,” was the answer, “Shall be that you shall not speak to no man for three nights, although you art not dumb.”

قَالَ رَبِّ اجْعَلْ لِي آَيَةً قَالَ آَيَتُكَ أَلَّا تُكَلِّمَ النَّاسَ ثَلَاثَ لَيَالٍ سَوِيًّا

19:26 “And if you do see any man, say, ‘I have vowed a fast to ((Allah)) Most Gracious, and this day will I enter into not talk with any human being'”
فَإِمَّا تَرَيِنَّ مِنَ الْبَشَرِ أَحَدًا فَقُولِي إِنِّي نَذَرْتُ لِلرَّحْمَنِ صَوْمًا فَلَنْ أُكَلِّمَ الْيَوْمَ إِنْسِيًّا

11.     Forgiving the mistakes and failures of the Murid (Seeker): Sheikh must be patient and forgiving when the Murid (Seeker) loses his Adab (Etiquette) or forsake some service he was ordered to do, as a man asked the Prophet: How much should I pardon my servant? The Prophet replied: Seventy times a day, each day. (Dara: Seventy in the language of the Arab means ‘a lot’ not the number 70)

12.    Disregarding one’s own rights: Even if the Sheikh deserves much respect and honor, and the more he does so, he is to disregard any rights for being respected and paid attention to, for such expectations are unbefitting the profession of a Sheikh. And do disregard with best of behavior and presentation. Daqqi narrates: I was in an Egyptian mosque with a group of Faqirs (Sufi Paupers) when Abu Bakr Warraq arrived and started offering prayers behind a column. We decided to stand up and greet the Sheikh once he finished. As soon as the Sheikh said the final Salaam (Peace) of the prayer he got up and came to us and surpassed us in greeting. We replied that it was our duty to greet him first and the Sheikh replied: Allah has never tormented my heart with that (i.e. expecting respect and attention from the people). (Dara: End of Sufism in our days)

13.    Fulfilling the obligations for the Murid (Seeker): (In contrast to the #12) The Sheikh is obliged to perform and fulfill all the rights that are due to the Murid (Seeker) of respect, expectations and attention and so on. Abu Muhammad Jariri narrates: When I returned from the Hajj I decided to go visit the Sheikh Junaid so he is not bothered to make the trip to my place. When the time for the Noon prayer arrived (the hottest time of the day to travel) I saw Junaid arriving and thus I told him: My Sayyid (Master) I meant to be the first to greet you (coming to your place) so that you might not come here, and Junaid replied: O Muhammad this (meaning to come to see me) is your virtue and generosity and (my coming to see you) your right!

14.    To allot time for Khalwat (Solitude) and Jilwat (Unveiled for public access): Sheikh should not be obsessed and preoccupied by the public affairs and mingling with people filling all his time, he must allot time for Khalwat (Solitude) to regain his Hala (Momentary States of the heart) Kamal (Perfection) and feeling the Divine Presence, as was practiced by the Prophet peace be upon him. The Prophet sometimes was with the people to be merciful with them and sometimes in solitude to gain and benefit more from the Divine Mercy.  Human being often suffers from lack of verve in worships and Dhikrs (Remembrance) and such times are most suitable to have Suhbat (Companionship) with people and attending to their affairs and once the attention and energy appears again return to the Khalwat (Solitude) and continue the worships with enthusiasm and zeal. Junaid told his companions: Had I known that a short prayer (Two Ra’at) is more valued than Suhbat (Companionship) I would have never socialized.

15.    Increased Performance of additional Dhikr and Worships (Nawāfil): Sheikh should never be mislead believing that he is not in need of additional non-obligatory Dhikrs and Worships, since the Prophet peace be upon was quite diligent to observe the Nafla e.g. additional prayers during the night and Dhikrs around different times of the day. It has entered into the Hadith (Prophetic Narration) that one night the Prophet prayed so much extra worships (Tahajjud) that his feet had swollen. Aisha asked him: O Messenger of Allah didn’t Allah forgive your past and future sins? The Prophet replied: (Since so) shouldn’t I be a grateful servant?

These were the collection of Adab (Etiquette) for being a Sheikh.


© 2010-2002,  Dara O Shayda

Properties of a Watch

Salaam everyone

Around 1:56 in the video, you hear the word PROPERTIES and arguments surrounding this concept. In Islam and Sufism this word is the Asma’ & Sifat or Divine Attributes. Paley’s concepts are not my concern, but the way the language was used to verbalize this concept of properties is important.

Thinking : التفكر الفكرة

Fikra: Thinking

Discussion   Join

See Also:

The lover’s most sacred hour is spent wallowing within thoughts and memories of his beloved:

An hour of thinking is better than 60 years of worship, said the Prophet peace be upon him.

الجامع الصغير.  – لجلال الدين السيوطي
المجلد الرابع >> باب: حرف الفاء
5897- فكرة ساعة خير من عبادة ستين سنة
التخريج (مفصلا): أبو الشيخ <ابن حبان> في العظمة عن أبي هريرة
تصحيح السيوطي: ضعيف


After all, Azizam (My dearest beloved), what is a lover? … without the thoughts of his beloved…

Azizat, That Divine Beloved, endowed your corpuscular mind with unique human thoughts to keep you company midst the hapless darknesses of the life of this world:

You (all) think about the Ala’ (Gifts) of Allah yet do not think about the nature of Allah (what Allah is), said the Prophet.


الجامع الصغير.  – لجلال الدين السيوطي
المجلد الثالث >> باب: حرف التاء
3348 – تفكروا في آلاء الله ولا تفكروا في الله
التخريج (مفصلا): أبو الشيخ <ابن حبان> الطبراني في الأوسط وابن عدي في الكامل والبيهقي في شعب الإيمان عن ابن عمر
تصحيح السيوطي: ضعيف
كنز العمال – للمتقي الهندي
المجلد الثالث >> التفكر
8491- عن أبي ذر رضي الله عنه عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم، في قوله تعالى: {وأن إلى ربك المنتهى} قال: لا فكرة في الله عز وجل.
(قط) في الأفراد.


And as such That Divine Hand crafted your beauty constrained by the Surat of Al-Rahman (Most Benevolent Gift Giver), while pouring most beautiful thoughts gushed deep within the molecular matrix of your Wujud (Being).

Azizam there is nothing for you, of the children and wealth of the life of this world, save an hour of thought for your true Beloved.

Azizam you are nothing but an eroding shoreline upon which the billows of That Divine Beloved’s thoughts, hour after hour, washed away all that which is not you!

Sieving through the thoughts and ancient memories of That Divine Beloved, you find the most precious nuggets of:

You (all) do think about the nature of all things, yet do not think about the Zhat (inmate essence) of Allah, since between the seventh sky to the Kursi (Pedestal), there is 70,000 Nur, and Hu is above all that, said the Prophet peace be upon him.

الجامع الصغير.  – لجلال الدين السيوطي
المجلد الثالث >> باب: حرف التاء
3345 – تفكروا في كل شيء، ولا تفكروا في ذات الله تعالى، فإن بين السماء السابعة إلى كرسيه سبعة آلاف نور، وهو فوق كل ذلك
[(“وهو فوق ذلك”: فوقية منزهة عن صفات الأجسام، فهي لا تزيده من الأرض بعدا ولا من السماء قربا، كما في قواعد العقائد لحجة الإسلام الإمام الغزالي. دار الحديث)]ـ
التخريج (مفصلا): أبو الشيخ <ابن حبان> في العظمة عن ابن عباس
********** تصحيح السيوطي **********
التصحيح غير موجود. وللسيوطي *** مصطلح *** في ذلك. قال في ديباجة قسم الأقوال من جمع الجوامع:
… للبخاري (خ) ولمسلم (م) ولابن حبان (حب) وللحاكم في المستدرك (ك) وللضياء المقدسي في المختارة (ض)
*** وجميع مافي هذه الكتب الخمسة صحيح فالعزو إليها معلم بالصحة *** سوى ما في المستدرك من المتعقب فأنبه عليه
وكذا ما في موطأ مالك وصحيح ابن خزيمة وأبي عوانة وابن السكن والمنتقى لابن الجارود والمستخرجات
*** فالعز و إليها معلم بالصحة أيضا ***
ورمزت لأبي داود (د) ولابن ماجه (ه) ولأبي داود الطيالسي (ط) ولأحمد (حم) ولزيادات ابنه عبد الله (عم) ولعبد الرزاق (عب) ولسعيد بن منصور (ص) ولابن أبي شيبة (ش) ولأبي يعلى (ع) وللطبراني في الكبير (طب) وفي الأوسط (طس) وللدارقطني (قط) فإن كان في السنن أطلقت وإلا بينته ولأبي نعيم في الحلية (حل) وللبيهقي (ق) فإن كان في السنن أطلقت وإلا بينته وله في شعب الإيمان (هب)
*** وهذه فيها الصحيح والحسن والضعيف، فأبينه غالبا ***
*** وكل ما كان في مسند أحمد فهو مقبول فإن الضعيف الذي فيه يقرب من الحسن ***
وللعقيلي في الضعفاء (عق) ولابن عدي في الكامل (عد) وللخطيب (خط) فإن كان في تاريخه أطلقت وإلا بينته ولابن عساكر (كر)
*** وكل ماعزي لهؤلاء الأربعة وللحكيم الترمذي في نوادر الأصول أو للحاكم في تاريخه أو لابن الجارود في تاريخه أو للديلمي في مسند الفردوس فهو ضعيف فيستغنى بالعزو إليها أو إلى بعضها عن بيان ضعفه ***
********** انتهى مصطلح تصحيح السيوطي **********
Fikr (Thinking, Thought) is the Maqlub or Qalab (Mutating a word by flipping two consecutive letters) of Fark (Ka and Ra flipped), though Fikr is used exclusively for conceptualizations, and it is Fark or unsheathing or peeling of some sort.

Lisan Al-Arab
Ibn Manzour
Unsheathing the outer skin of an object to reach to its core e.g. shelling a walnut.

مفردات ألفاظ القرآن.3 – للأصفهاني
كتاب الفاء
-الفكرة: قوة مطرقة للعلم إلى المعلوم، والتفكر: جولان تلك القوة بحسب نظر العقل، وذلك للإنسان دون الحيوان، ولا يقال إلا فيما يمكن أن يحصل له صورة في القلب، ولهذا روي: (تفكروا في آلاء الله ولا تفكروا في الله) (الحديث تقدم في مادة (أله) ) إذ كان الله منزها أن يوصف بصورة. قال تعالى: {أو لم يتفكروا في أنفسهم ما خلق الله السموات} <الروم/8>، {أو لم يتفكروا ما بصاحبهم من جنة} <الأعراف/184>، {إن في ذلك لآيات لقوم يتفكرون} <الرعد/3>، {يبين الله لكم الآيات لعلكم تتفكرون * في الدنيا والآخرة} <البقرة/219 – 220>. ورجل فكير: كثير الفكرة، قال بعض الأدباء: الفكر مقلوب عن الفرك لكن يستعمل الفكر في المعاني، وهو فرك الأمور وبحثها طلبا للوصول إلى حقيقتها.
لسان العرب،2 – لابن المنظور الإفريقي.
المجلد العاشر >> (ك) >> حرف الكاف >> فصل الفاء
الفَرْك: دَلْكُ الشيء حتى ينقلع قِشْرُه عن لبِّه كالجَوْز، فَرَكه يَفْرُكه فَرْكاً فانْفَرَك.
والفَرِكُ: المُتَفَرِّك قشره.
واسْتَفْرَك الحبُّ في السُّنْبُلة: سَمِنَ واشتدّ.
وبُرٌّ فرِيكٌ: وهو الذي فُرِكَ ونُقِّي.
وأَفْرَك الحبُّ: حان له أَن يُفْرك.
والفَرِيك: طعام يُفْرك ثم يُلَتّ بسمن أَو غيره، وفَرَكْتُ الثوب والسنبل بيدي فَرْكاً.
وأَفْرَكَ السنبلُ أَي: صار فَرِيكاً، وهو حين يَصْلُح أَن يُفْرَك فيؤكل. (ج/ص: 10/474)
ويقال للنبت أَوَّلَ ما يَطْلُع: نجَمَ ثم فَرَّخَ وقَصَّبَ ثم أَعْصَفَ ثم أَسْبَلَ ثم سَنْبَل ثم أَحَبَّ وأَلَبَّ ثم أسْفى ثم أَفْرَكَ ثم أَحْصَدَ.
وفي الحديث: ((نهى عن بيع الحَب حتى يُفْرِكَ)).
أَي: يَشْتَدَّ وينتهي.
يقال: أَفْرَكَ الزرعُ إذا بلغ أَن يُفْرَك باليد، وفَرَكْته وهو مفروك وفَرِيك، ومن رواه بفتح الراء فمعناه: حتى يخرج من قشره.


Qaum (Collective) Yatafakkarun (Perpetual Thinkers)

10:24. As such for You (Muhammad) in great details We elucidate the sings for the Qaum (Collective) Yatafakkarun (Perpetual Thinkers)

إِنَّمَا مَثَلُ الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا كَمَاءٍ أَنْزَلْنَاهُ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ فَاخْتَلَطَ بِهِ نَبَاتُ الْأَرْضِ مِمَّا يَأْكُلُ النَّاسُ وَالْأَنْعَامُ حَتَّى إِذَا أَخَذَتِ الْأَرْضُ زُخْرُفَهَا وَازَّيَّنَتْ وَظَنَّ أَهْلُهَا أَنَّهُمْ قَادِرُونَ عَلَيْهَا أَتَاهَا أَمْرُنَا لَيْلًا أَوْ نَهَارًا فَجَعَلْنَاهَا حَصِيدًا كَأَنْ لَمْ تَغْنَ بِالْأَمْسِ كَذَلِكَ نُفَصِّلُ الْآَيَاتِ لِقَوْمٍ يَتَفَكَّرُونَ


3:13. And it is Hu (IT, He) who spread out the earth, and set thereon mountains standing firm and (flowing) rivers: and fruit of every kind Hu made in pairs, two and two: draweth the night as a veil over the Day. Behold, verily in these things there are signs for Qaum (Collective) Yatafakkarun (Perpetual Thinkers)

وَهُوَ الَّذِي مَدَّ الْأَرْضَ وَجَعَلَ فِيهَا رَوَاسِيَ وَأَنْهَارًا وَمِنْ كُلِّ الثَّمَرَاتِ جَعَلَ فِيهَا زَوْجَيْنِ اثْنَيْنِ يُغْشِي اللَّيْلَ النَّهَارَ إِنَّ فِي ذَلِكَ لَآَيَاتٍ لِقَوْمٍ يَتَفَكَّرُونَ
16:11. With it Hu produces for you corn, olives, date-palms, grapes and every kind of fruit: verily in this is a sign for Qaum (Collective) Yatafakkarun (Perpetual Thinkers)
يُنْبِتُ لَكُمْ بِهِ الزَّرْعَ وَالزَّيْتُونَ وَالنَّخِيلَ وَالْأَعْنَابَ وَمِنْ كُلِّ الثَّمَرَاتِ إِنَّ فِي ذَلِكَ لَآَيَةً لِقَوْمٍ يَتَفَكَّرُونَ


16:69. Then to eat of all the produce (of the earth), and find with skill the spacious paths of its Lord: there issues from within their bodies a drink of varying colours, wherein is healing for men: verily in this is a Sign for Qaum(Collective) Yatafakkarun (Perpetual Thinkers)


ثُمَّ كُلِي مِنْ كُلِّ الثَّمَرَاتِ فَاسْلُكِي سُبُلَ رَبِّكِ ذُلُلًا يَخْرُجُ مِنْ بُطُونِهَا شَرَابٌ مُخْتَلِفٌ أَلْوَانُهُ فِيهِ شِفَاءٌ لِلنَّاسِ إِنَّ فِي ذَلِكَ لَآَيَةً لِقَوْمٍ يَتَفَكَّرُونَ


30:21. And among His Signs is this, that He created for you mates from among yourselves, that ye may dwell in tranquillity with them, and He has put love and mercy between your (hearts): verily in that are Signs for Qaum (Collective) Yatafakkarun (Perpetual Thinkers)


وَمِنْ آَيَاتِهِ أَنْ خَلَقَ لَكُمْ مِنْ أَنْفُسِكُمْ أَزْوَاجًا لِتَسْكُنُوا إِلَيْهَا وَجَعَلَ بَيْنَكُمْ مَوَدَّةً وَرَحْمَةً إِنَّ فِي ذَلِكَ لَآَيَاتٍ لِقَوْمٍ يَتَفَكَّرُونَ

30:42. It is Allah that takes the souls (of men) at death; and those that die not (Hu takes) during their sleep: those on whom He has passed the decree of death, Hu keeps back (from returning to life), but the rest Hu sends (to their bodies) for a term appointed verily in this are Signs for Qaum (Collective) Yatafakkarun (Perpetual Thinkers)

اللَّهُ يَتَوَفَّى الْأَنْفُسَ حِينَ مَوْتِهَا وَالَّتِي لَمْ تَمُتْ فِي مَنَامِهَا فَيُمْسِكُ الَّتِي قَضَى عَلَيْهَا الْمَوْتَ وَيُرْسِلُ الْأُخْرَى إِلَى أَجَلٍ مُسَمًّى إِنَّ فِي ذَلِكَ لَآَيَاتٍ لِقَوْمٍ يَتَفَكَّرُونَ


45:13. And Hu has subjected to you, as from Hu, all that is in the heavens and on earth: Behold, in that are Signs indeed for Qaum (Collective) Yatafakkarun (Perpetual Thinkers)

وَسَخَّرَ لَكُمْ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ جَمِيعًا مِنْهُ إِنَّ فِي ذَلِكَ لَآَيَاتٍ لِقَوْمٍ يَتَفَكَّرُونَ


Thinkers are a collective, a society, a continuum, they are all entangled, free of time and space, a thinker thinking of Allah 15 centuries ago is entangled, as the braids, with a thinker thinking of Allah this very moment.

© 2012-2002,  Dara O Shayda

This Voyage

“This Voyage”












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In Your Beautiful Names all journeys commence

My dearest—May Allah brim-fill your eyes with light—this Voyage is not just for anyone. Unnumbered brave travelers traversed the earth and heavens, yet their endeavor failed them, some failed even to start this Voyage and most did not reach the destination.

The first step of this Voyage is the most difficult. A Sālek (Traveler) must start the Voyage from where he or she is at, not from where he or she wishes to be, not from where other people started theirs. Avoiding wishful starts and yearning for starting-point of others, are the hardest.

Your body’s voyage is the traversal through points of the space-time; this spiritual Voyage is the traversal from “who you are” to “who Allah is”, from “your temporal existence” to “Allah’s eternal existence”. Therefore if you do not take ample care to know who you are, then you would start this voyage from the wrong point and you shall fail beyond all doubts to reach the destination: Who Allah is.

I have sculpted the marble of who I am not, artfully
By my Self
Chips of lies strewn upon the earth of loss all over
By my Self

I have chiseled the marvel of who I am not thoughtfully
Whilst the pearls of sobs strung along the chain of sighs
By my Self

You may start this voyage by the ever so slight first-step of “who you really are”—Ethereal yet a monumental achievement indeed. If you embark upon the Voyage without the actual first-step of “who you are” you shall reach some destination, for certain farthest away from Allah.

As in the case of traversing any path, the act of voyage manifests itself vis-à-vis the changes of the surrounding landscape i.e. moving away from one tree approaching the next, leaving one exit behind reaching another.

Similarly on this peculiar Path, the essence of your voyage manifests itself vis-à-vis the changes in your persona’s landscape i.e. silencing bad words for uttering good words, halting evil deeds by motioning righteous deeds, forsaking foul behavior favoring refined behavior. And the latter is the hardest for all Murids: The value of forsaking one unnoticeable or habitual foul behavior may surpass that of many years of worship!

A burning candle braving the odious gusts of destiny
Weeping I am
A mother giving birth to her own miserable life
Laboring I am

Ashes of my Self’s calf dusted upon the insidious Nile
A Moses running from his own Self’s Pharaoh
Escaping I am

As on any path if you do not see any changes in the scenery around you, the logical conclusion would be: I did not move at all. Likewise on this Path, if you did not observe any changes in your personality, for sure, you can confidently conclude: I did do many things but I did not endeavor any spiritual voyage!

The unshakable reality of your space-time traversal is that you voyage from biological life towards biological death. Correspondingly on this Path, you voyage from biological life towards non-biological death, where your existence is no longer and yet your nascent spiritual life subsists everlastingly upon the absolute existence of Allah—voyaging from “your existence” towards “Allah’s existence”.

My love, the voyage of a tree is through its growth and everything a tree is all about, found exclusively within its single and tiny seed! In the same way, your voyage is through your spiritual growth and all that you need to grow, to bloom with effulgent blossoms, found entirely within you! As there is nothing outside the seed that is a part of the tree’s essence, there is nothing outside you that is a part of your essence.

“If everything needed for growth is within” you might ask, “Then what is the purpose of worship, knowledge, Dhikr (Remembrance), fasting and so on”, Nasafi has elegantly answered this question:

Human being has level/stages as does a tree (for growth). It is most patent what growth stage a tree is at, at any given moment. So it is the job of the gardener to prepare the soil, schedule for watering, pruning and cleaning in order for a tree to reach the completion of its growth, one stage after the other. Similarly Sālek (Traveler) is a gardener growing, stage by stage, his or her Humanity towards Ādamiyat (Human-ness, most innate perfection of being a man) by exerting efforts and taming the Nafs (Psyche, Self).

All stages of a tree’s growth are encapsulated within the seed. A competent gardener exerts effort in order to provide the environment for emergence of each stage of the growth. The same is true for Sālek (Traveler) bringing forth the stages of humanity that are all incubated within.

Moreover this spiritual gardener requires the companionship of the learned man to see to all stages of the growth to appear.

Here the gardener could be your parents, you or your sheikh and the acts of gardening are worship, acquisition of knowledge, Dhikr (Remembrance), fasting and so on (Don’t forget loving). Some acts you may do privately by yourself, some in a group and some may be done to you, but at each moment of time focus your eyes on the prize: Growth, just as a gardener does with a tree. Someone may draw a tree or may sing a song about a tree or may dream of a tree, however none does make him a gardener and suchlike efforts and aspirations will not help the growth of any tree. So be a gardener not a painter or a singer or a dreamer.

As with someone walking a tight rope, losing the balance and falling is inevitable. Deviating from the Path and interrupting the Voyage is inevitable. But my dear there is a sure way to avoid or correct any deviation, small or large:

O Dervish:

Don’t be all into performing too many prayers, fasting too many days or performing too many Hajj pilgrimages, do the required and the obligatory. Don’t be all into learning too many fancy words or strange spiritual tales in order to gain much wisdom, obtain the average amount necessary.

Push hard to be straight and purify your Nafs (Psyche, Self).

You must reach a stage wherein, each moment, pours out of you goodness and ease (for others), even without you being conscious. Don’t be like those nations from who effuses evil and suffering each day.

Evil and crookedness is their essence, let the straightness and goodness be your essence.

O Dervish:

Once you are adorned with the Divine Akhlāq (Behaviors & Attributes), be good and generous, don’t make others feel indebted to you rather always feel indebted to others.

The meaning of ‘Bad Nafs (Psyche, Self)’ is to harm people or cause them suffering, now that you know this meaning please avoid it by all means.

The meaning of ‘Good Nafs (Psyche, Self)’ is to actively seek goodness and comfort for others and each moment try to comfort them by means of your words, your hands or your wealth.”

So you do not wish to be off the Path? You wish to continue with the Voyage?

Then be a comfort, a solace:

“Every morning the scholar wakes up and seeks more knowledge, every morning the Zāhid (Ascetic) wakes up and seeks more Zuhd (Asceticism), yet Abul-Hassan wakes up seeking more joy for some brother’s heart.”

(Source: Abul-Hassan Kharqāni’s quotes from Tadh-keratul Auliā by Faridud-din Attār)

Every morning wake up and seek a broken leg to be its cane or seek a blind eye to be its guide or seek a broken heart to be its solace. Know that the Beautiful One is amongst the broken hearts, not amongst the beautiful faces.

Be a cane or be a guide or be a solace and yet be assured that you shall never deviate from The Voyage, and that as with all things is by Allah’s permission.

© 2005-2002,  Dara O. Shayda   

Ibn Sina: Ishari (Vectorial) Tafsir (Exegesis) Surah Al-Falaq 113

Ibn Sina: Tafsir (Exegesis) Surah Al-Falaq

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There are several issues with the lection of the Surah 113 named Al-Falaq:

1. The Prophet peace be upon him recommended to read this Surah over and over, as he did himself seeking sanctuary of Allah. However within the Surah there is the ‘convenient’ translation of Naffāthāt Fi Al-‘Uqad namely: Seeking refuge from the magicians blowing into knots (then un-knotted without touching). This poses an issue with the Prophet using this Surah as off-repeated prayer, since in most of such recommendations the prayers are most general, regardless of the circumstances or context, and never such specific mention of the events in the daily life of the Prophet had been used as a part of a prayer.

2. The mention of darkness of night in this Surah being evil, is not in congruence with the rest of mention of night in Qur’an which has been rendered as a time of tranquility and worship and spiritual events!

3. The ending verse, seeking refuge from the evil of the envier, does not match any of the previous verses and it is completely isolated. Question could be asked: Why envy? why not anger?

Perchance we all have been reading this amazing Surah the wrong way all our lives!

The only satisfactory Tafsir (Exegesis) for this Surah has been found to be that of Ibn Sina. Sadly both Arabic and Farsi texts are quite hard to come by, but this Rahi (Author) was fortunate to be given both copies for studying. The only Arabic copy found on internet was preserved by Joseph Kenny, O.P. .

Ishari (Vectorial) Tafsir (Exegesis)

Singularity called Al-Falaq 

Ibn Sina
Say I seek sanctuary with the Rabb (Governor, Administrator) of the Al-Falaq: The Sunderer (Faliq) of the darkness of ‘Adam (Non-Being) by means of the light (Nur) of Al-Wujud (Allah’s Being-ness).

قل أعوذ برب الفلق، فالق ظلمة العدم بنور الوجود

Remark 1. Realm A: Azal (Sempiternity) where there is Allah and no one else, where there is Light and no concept of darkness. Realm B: ‘Adam (Non-Being) the universe where there is no light at all! The rules in either realm totally dissimilar to the other.

Remark 2. In between the two disjoint realms there is a Singularity called Al-Falaq or the Dawn. The Lord of this singularity is Allah. Allah allows the passage from one realm to the other, through the singularity of Al-Falaq, otherwise the two realms are inexorably partitioned.

Remark 3. Allah as Al-Fāliq (Sunderer) breaks the said singularity, Light floods emanates from Realm A: Azal (Sempiternity) into darkness of Realm B: ‘Adam (Non-Being), suddenly there is a medley of light and darkness which we feel we observe we think of as this extant cosmos. In Realm A there is Allah and no one else, in Realm B there is Allah and other than Allah.

Ibn Sina
And the very first creature emanated from it (through the singularity from Azal to ‘Adam) is ITs/His Qadha’ ( Primordial Decision, Decree)

وأول الموجودات الصادرة عنه هو قضاؤه

Remark 4. IT allowed to be known by other than ITself! This was a primordial decision amongst infinitely other decisions.

Ibn Sina

The original (emanation) had no evil within, but evil found concealed under the radiance of the primordial Light (Nur)!

 وليس فيه شر أصلاً إلا ما صار مخفياً تحت سطوع النور الأول عليه

Ibn Sina
(This evil caused by an occlusion of Light (Nur)) due to the opacity necessary for Mahiya (What-ness), originated from Huwiya (Who-ness).

  وهو الكدورة اللازمة لماهيته، المنشأة من هويته

Remark 5. opacity necessary for Mahiya (What-ness): The primordial Light (Nur) is Singleton, in order for it to bring to existence something other than ITself, it needs an opacity or something that causes shadow to be discernible, that shadow-caster is Mahiya (What-ness) that allows for something other than Allah to become patent, and the origin of this shadow-caster What-ness was Huwiya (Who-ness) the Divine Pronoun/Name/Attribute which allows for pointing i.e. “That over there!”, indicating the direction of something discernible. In summary What-ness is an opacity originated from Who-ness occluding the light, thus a dark shadow the source of all evil, the source of all existence as well.

Huwiya (Who-ness) is the answer to the question ‘Who is that?’.
Māhiya (What-ness) is the answer to the question ‘What is that?’.

Ibn Sina
The penetration of ITs Qadha’ ( Primordial Decision, Decree) is the primordial cause for ITs ’cause and effects’ which are ITs Al-Qadar (Immutable Destiny, Fate) and ITs creation. For that matter Allah said: ‘From the evil of what (IT) created’, the evil which is set from the creation and fate (Qadar), since this evil does not originate except from bodies created and caused from/by fate (Qadar).

ونفوذ قضائه وهو المسبب الأول في معلولاته هو قدرة وهو خلقه. فلذلك قال تعالى: “من شر ما خلق”. جعل الشر في ناحية الخلق والتقدير، فإن ذلك الشر لا ينشأ إلا من الأجسام ذوات التقدير

Ibn Sina
Also the bodies (matter) are from ITs Al-Qadar (Immutable Destiny, Fate) and not from Qadha’ ( Primordial Decision, Decree), and Fate is the source for for all evil since bodies (matter) could not be found except here (in Fate), for that reason annexed the evil to ‘what was created’.

وأيضاً، فلما كانت الأجسام من قدره لا من قضائه، وهي منبع الشر من حيث أن المادة لا تحصل إلا هناك لا جرم، جعل الشر مضافاً إلى ما خلق.

Ibn Sina then continues with the two major categories of evil, the two major sources of darkness(s) and occlusions for Nur (Light) :

1. Animal Self:  وَمِن شَرِّ غَاسِقٍ إِذَا وَقَبَ
2. Botanical Self: ومن شر النفاثات في العقد

Remark 6. Why Ghasiq, from Ghasaqa, used to describe the darkness? Why not Zalama? Given the known context of the verb Ghasaqa, it is clear there was light e.g. sun and then it set and then darkness entered to every possible location (cavity) or Waqaba. Similarly, there was Nur (Light) it was occluded by the above said opacity of the creation and then darkness enters into everything. Translation: And from the evil of the darkness once entered (into everything created).

لسان العرب
وفي التنزيل العزيز: ومِن شَرِّ غاسقٍ إذا وَقَبَ؛ الفراء: الغاسِقُ الليل؛ إذا وَقَبَ إذا دخَل في كل شيء وأَظْلَمَ.

Ibn Sina
The Animal Force (Animal Self) is darkness which is Ghasiq (sets after light) and opaque (severely occludes light).

أما القوى الحيوانية فهي ظلمانية غاسقة متكدرة

Ibn Sina
… and others such as lusts and anger, in general things that happen to something from outside, therefore this form of darkness (Animal Self) is renewable.

وغيرهما من الشهوة والغضب، والأمور التي تحصل في الشيء من الخارج تكون متجددة، فإذا تلك الظلمة متجددة

Anger and lust within an entity are impacts of another entity outside the capsule of Animal Self, therefore each time they occur is a de novo darkness.

Naffāthāt: derived from Nafatha flowing of breath with tiny spit out of the mouth, or blood from wound, or poison from the bite of a serpent.

لسان العرب
النَّفْثُ: أَقلُّ من التَّفْل، لأَن التفل لا يكون إِلاَّ معه شيء من الريق؛ والنفثُ: شبيه بالنفخ؛ وقيل: هو التفل بعينه.
نَفَثَ الرَّاقي، وفي المحكم: نَفَثَ يَنْفِثُ ويَنْفُثُ نَفْثاً ونَفَثاناً. وفي الحديث أَن النبي، صلى الله عليه وسلم، قال إِنَّ رُوحَ القُدُس نَفَثَ في رُوعي، وقال: إِنّ نَفْساً لن تَموتَ حتى تَسْتوفِيَ رزقها، فاتَّقوا الله وأَجملوا في الطلب؛ قال أَبو عبيد: هو كالنَّفْثِ بالفم، شبيهٌ بالنفخ، يعني جبريلَ أَي أَوْحى وأَلقى. والحيَّةُ تَنْفُثُ السمَّ حين تَنْكُزُ. والجُرْحُ يَنْفُثُ الدمَ إذا أَظهره. وَسمٌّ نَفِيثٌ ودم نَفِيثٌ إذا نَفَثَه الجرحُ؛ قال صخر الغيّ:
مَتى ما تُنْكِرُوها تَعْرِفُوهـا،        على أَقْطارِها عَلَقٌ نَفِيثُ
وفي الحديث: أَنّ زَيْنَبَ بنتَ رسولُ الله، صلى الله عليه وسلم، أَنْفَرَ بها المشركون بعيرَها حتى سقطت، فَنَفَثَتِ الدماءَ مَكانَها، وأَلقت ما في بطنها أِي سالَ دمُها. وأَما قوله في الحديث في افتتاح الصلاة: اللهمَّ إِني أَعوذ بك من الشيطان الرجيم من هَمْزِهِ ونَفْثِهِ ونَفْخِهِ؛ فأَما الهمز والنفخ فمذكوران في موضعهما، وأَما النفث فتفسيره في الحديث أَنه الشِّعْرُ؛ قال أَبو عبيد: وإِنما سمي النَّفْثُ شِعْراً لأَنه كالشيء يَنْفُثُه الإِنسانُ من فيه، مِثل الرُّقْية. وفي الحديث: أَنه قرأَ المُعَوِّذتين على نَفْسِهِ ونَفَثَ.

Prophet mentions the Arch Angel doing Nafath into his Self or Mind (Rau’) while saying: No person/Self dies until all her provision is fulfilled (given), so safeguard against Allah‘s (anguish) and be frugal in seeking (daily provision).

 ورُواعُ القَلْبِ ورُوعُه: ذِهْنُه وخَلَدُه. والرُّوعُ، بالضم: القَلبُ والعَقْل، ووقع ذلك في رُوعِي أَي نَفْسي وخَلَدِي وبالي، وفي حديثٍ: نَفْسِي. وفي الحديث: إِنَّ رُوح القُدُسِ نَفَثَ في رُوعي، وقال: إِنَّ نَفْساً لن تموت حتى تَسْتَوْفيَ رِزْقَها فاتَّقُوا الله وأَجْمِلُوا في الطلَب؛ قال أَبو عبيدة: معناه في نفْسي وخَلَدي ونحو ذلك، ورُوحُ القُدُس: جبريل، عليه السلام. وفي بعض الطُّرق: إِنَّ رُوحَ الأَمين نفَثَ في رُوعي.

Remark 7. From this Hadith (Narration) one could extrapolate relationship between Nafath and provisions, so the angel blows with a tad bit of spit (liquid) into the mind or Self of the Prophet and that symbolizes giving of the provision, peace be upon both of them.

‘Uqad: plural of ‘Aqd, knot knit joint fastened locked together, in the case of this Tafsir (Exegesis) Ibn Sina considers this word to mean the organs and limbs and body parts tied together into a full body of a composite living creature. You might add on the modern thought of multi-cellular multiplex of cells.

Remark 8. From these two concepts Ibn Sina cognizes the Botanical Self (Nafs Nabati), the multi-cellular multiplex of organs and limbs and physiology and psychology that is suited for growth and expansion in multiple dimensions fueled nourished by devouring of provisions.

Ibn Sina

Naffāthāt Fil Al-‘Uqad is an Ishara (Pointing) towards the Botanical Force (Botanical Self), a force that grows the body and expands it.

ومن شر النفاثات في العقد: إشارة إلى القوى النباتية الموكلة، فإن القوى النباتية موكلة بتدبير البدن ونشوه ونموه

Ibn Sina
The Botanical Force (Botanical Self) was linked in similarity to Nafath (Blow of breath with tiny spit), since the blow of breath into something expands it in all directions i.e. growth.

 فأشبه الأشياء تأثير القوى النباتية النفث، فإن النفث سبب لا ينتفخ الشيء ويصير بحسب المقدار أزيد مما كان في جميع الجهات

Remark 9. These two forces, Animal Self united with Botanical Self shape the life and the cosmos for all to continue to survive. Both forces or Selves incubate much of the evil, not as a part of their design, but as a side-effect or after-effect of creation and engineering of ‘becoming’ and ‘living’.

Remark 10. And from the evil of envier once envied: the Botanical Self is in constant need of devouring provision to grow and maintain while the Animal Self is in constant motion and desiring and chasing after provisions, in ceaseless conflict internally with the Rational Self (Nafs Natiqa) and externally in competition with other creatures who might provide challenge for the needed acquisitions required by either Botanical or Animal Selves to be fed or sated. These experiences are felt as envy, to wish what others have, wish them to lose what they have, and wish to gain all that they have for one’s own provision.

تفسير المعوذتين
لابن سينا


سورة الفلق 113

    بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم. قل أعوذ برب الفلق، فالق ظلمة العدم بنور الوجود، هو المبدأ الأول الواجب الوجود لذاته، وذلك من لوازم خيريته المطلقة في هويته المقصود بالقصد الأول.

        وأول الموجودات الصادرة عنه هو قضاؤه، وليس فيه شر أصلاً إلا ما صار مخفياً تحت سطوع النور الأول عليه، وهو الكدورة اللازمة لماهيته، المنشأة من هويته.

        ثم بعد ذلك تتأدى الأسباب بمصادماتها إلى شرور لازمة عنها. ونفوذ قضائه وهو المسبب الأول في معلولاته هو قدرة وهو خلقه. فلذلك قال تعالى: “من شر ما خلق”. جعل الشر في ناحية الخلق والتقدير، فإن ذلك الشر لا ينشأ إلا من الأجسام ذوات التقدير.

        وأيضاً، فلما كانت الأجسام من قدره لا من قضائه، وهي منبع الشر من حيث أن المادة لا تحصل إلا هناك لا جرم، جعل الشر مضافاً إلى ما خلق.

        ثم إنه تعالى قدم الانفلاق وهو إفاضة نور الوجود على الماهيات الممكنة، على الشر اللازم مما خلق، من حيث أن الانفلاق سابق على الشرور اللازمة من بعضها. ولذلك فإن الخير مقصود بالقصد الأول، والشر بالقصد الثاني حاصل. فالحاصل أن الفالق لظلمة العدم بنور الوجود هو واجب الوجود، والشرور غير لازمة منه أولاً في قضائه، بل ثانياً في قدره فأمر بالاستعاذة برب الفلق من الشرور اللازمة من الخلق.

        فإن قيل: لماذا قال برب الفلق ولم يقل بإله الفلق، وغير ذلك؟ قيل إن فيه سرً لطيفاً من حقائق العلم، وذلك لأن الرب رب للمربوب، والمربوب هو الذي لا يستغني في شيء من حالاته عن الرب. انظر إلى الطفل الذي يربيه والداه، فما دام مربوباً هل يستغني عن الرب؟

        ولما كانت الماهيات الممكنة غير مستغنية في شيء من أوقات وجودها ولا من أحوال ثبوتها عن إفاضة المبدأ الأول لا جرم، ذكر ذلك بلفظ الرب، والإله أيضاً كذلك. فإن الأفعال محتاجة إلى الإله لا من حيث إله لأن الإله من حيث هو إله هو المستحق للعبادة، والمربوب لا يكون مقبولاً بالقياس إلى المستحق للعبادة، فالفلق لا بد له من فالق ورب ومؤثر، ولا يحتاج إلى المعبود من حيث هو كذلك.

        واعلم أن فيه إشارة أخرى من خفيات الأمور والعلوم، وهو أن الاستعاذة والعوذ والعياذ في اللغة، عبارة عن الالتجاء إلى الغير. فلما أمر بمجرد الالتجاء إلى الغير دل ذلك على أن عدم حصول الكمالات ليس لأمر يرجع إلى المفيض للخيرات، بل لأمر يرجع إلى قابلها. وذلك يحقق الكلام المقرر من أنه ليست الكمالات ولا شيء منها مبخولاً بها من عند المبدأ الأول، بل الكل حاصل موقوف على أن يصرف المستعد وجه قبوله إليها، وهو المعنى بالإشارة النبوية، على قائلها الصلوة والسلام: “إن لربكم في أيام دهركم نفحات من رحمته ألا فتعرضوأ لها”، بيّن أن نفحات الألطاف دائمة، وإنما الخلل في المستعد. وتحت ذلك تنبيهاً عظيمة [على أصول] جليلة وقواعد خطيرة يمكن للتأمل الوقوف عليها من غير تصريح.

        قوله تعالى:  وَمِن شَرِّ غَاسِقٍ إِذَا وَقَبَ: المستعيذ هو النفس الجزوية للإنسان الجزوي من الشرور اللازمة في الأشياء ذوات التقدير، الواقعة في صقع القدر. ثم إن أعظم تلك الأمور تأثيراً في الإضرار بجوهر النفس الإنسانية الأشياء الداخلة معها في أهاب البدن، وهو التي تكون آلة لها من وجه، ووبالاً عليها من وجه. فمن وجه كلها لها، ومن وجه كلها عليها، وهي القوى الحيوانية والقوى النباتية.

        أما القوى الحيوانية فهي ظلمانية غاسقة متكدرة، وقد علمت أن المادة هي منبع الظلمة والشر والعدم. والنفس الناطقة، التي هي المستعيذة، خلقت في جوهرها نقية صافية، مبرأة عن كدورات المادة وعلائقها، قابلة لجميع الصور والحقائق، ثم إن تلك اللطافة والأنوار لا تزول عنها إلا بهيئات ترتسم فيها من القوى الحيوانية التخيلية والوهمية، وغيرهما من الشهوة والغضب، والأمور التي تحصل في الشيء من الخارج تكون متجددة، فإذا تلك الظلمة متجددة.

        ولما كان جوهر النفس غسق وقب، أي ظلمة أقبلت، ولما كان الأقرب من جوهر النفس الناطقة تتكدر بتلك الهيئات الغاسقة عندما تقب أي تدهم وتقبل أوردها عقب ما ذكر ما هو أعم منها.

        والشرور الحاصلة من وقب الغاسق مشاركة ل”شر ما خلق” اشتراك الأخص والأعم، لكنه لما كان لهذا الخاص ميزته في صيرورة النفس مظلمة لا جرم، حسن ذكرها ليتقرر في النفس هيئة كونها من أعظم الرذائل، فتعظم الإجناب عنه ويقوي صارف الأخلاط.

        ثم قوله تعالى: ومن شر النفاثات في العقد: إشارة إلى القوى النباتية الموكلة، فإن القوى النباتية موكلة بتدبير البدن ونشوه ونموه، والبدن عقد حصلت من عقد بين العناصر المختلفة المتنازعة إلى الانفكاك، لكنها من شدة انفعال بعضها عن البعض صارت بدناً حيوانياً، والنفاثات فيها هي القوى النباتية. فإن النفث سبب لأن يصير جوهر الشيء زائداً في المقدار في جميع جهاته، أعني الطول والعرض والعمق. وهذه القوى هي التي تؤثر في زيادة الجسم المغتذي والنامي في جميع الجهات المذكورة، أعني الطول والعرض والعمق.

        وليس يمكن أن يكون شيء من الصناعات يفيد الزيادة من جانب واحد إلا وهو موجب النقصان من جانب آخر. مثلاً الحداد إذا أخذ قطعة من الحديد وأراد أن يزيد في طولها، فلا بد وإن ينقص عرضها أو ثخنها، أو يحتاج إلى أن يضم إليها قطعة أخرى أجنبية من جارج.   فأما القوى النباتية تضطر إلى النفث، فهي التي تنفذ أجزاء الغذاء في باطن الجسم المغتذي وتجعلها شبيهة بها، وتزيد به جوهر الأعضاء في جهاتها الثلاثة.

        فأشبه الأشياء تأثير القوى النباتية النفث، فإن النفث سبب لا ينتفخ الشيء ويصير بحسب المقدار أزيد مما كان في جميع الجهات.

        فالنفاثات في العقد هي القوى النباتية، ولما كانت العلاقة بين النفس الإنسانية والقوى النباتية بواسطة القوى الحيوانية لا جرم، قدم ذكر القوى الحيوانية على ذكر القوى النباتية.

        وبالجملة، فإن الشر اللازم من هاتين القوتين في جوهر النفس استحكام علائق البدن وارتفاع تغذيها بالغذاء الموافق لها اللائق بجوهرها، وهو الإحاطة بملكوت السموات، والانتقاش بالنقوش الباقية.

        وقوله تعالى: ومن شر حاسد إذا حسد، عني به النزاع الحاصل بين البدن وقواه كلها، وبين النفس. فإنه لما أشار أولاً إلى الشرور اللازمة من التغذي ثم أشار إلى التفصيل، وبدأ بالشرور اللازمة من القوى الحيوانية، ثم التي عن القوى النباتية، ثم التي عن البدن من حيث له القوتان شيء آخر وبينه وبين النفس نزاع آخر، وذلك النزاع هو الحسد المنشأ بين آدم وإبليس، وهو الداء العضال، أمره بالاستعاذة بالمبدأ الأول منه أيضاً.

        فهذه السورة دالة على كيفية دخول الشر في القضاء الإلهي، وإنه مقصود بالعرض لا بالذات، وإن المنبع للشرور بحسب النفس الإنسانية هو القوى الحيوانية والنباتية وعلائق البدن، وإن كان ذلك وبالاً وكللاً عليها فما أحسن حالها عند الإعراض عن ذلك، وما أعظم لذتها بالمفارقة عنه إن كانت تفارقه بالذات، وبالعلاقة بجميع الحالات.

        رزقنا الله التجرد التام والتأله الكامل، بحق النبي محمد وأله الطاهرين والحمد لله رب العالمين، الصلاة على النبي وأله أجمعين.

© 2015-2002,  Dara O Shayda

Sunderer: Falaqa, Fatara, Shaqqa





Discussion    Join

See Also:


Templates Mu-n-fa’il, ‘I-n-fi’al



We are surrounded by singularities no matter where and when and what and how we examine.

A singularity separates realm A from realm B, where each realm are endowed with structures and rules for existence of the entities within them. There is no way the two realms could immix and if they could they both would have had perished. They can coexist since the singularity forbids them to commix in whatsoever way.

By observation we can see that in some cases entities from realm A find a way to appear in realm B, but transformed. Transformed since the original entity in realm A (stars) cannot exist in real B (polygons), for that matter the entity in realm A must transform to structure allowable in realm B.

For example a larva crosses the singularity of a cocoon to adopt new rules of motion i.e. rapid aerial flight abandoning the completely incompatible slow crawling motion on branches. Or ice in solid form, suddenly becomes liquid.

This translocation has the ‘feel’ of passing through a ‘breakage’ in singularity!

For briefest moment of time a breakage occurs, entity instantly translocates from realm A into realm B, breakage closes and the entity is transformed into something completely different, no longer in realm A, but now in realm B.

For example acorn is a seemingly un-living organism in a hard shell, suddenly breaks the shell and is a soft living sprouting plant.


Remark: The motion and processes for translocating from realm A to realm B are not continuous nor smooth, so to say. There is a jump, thus the verbiage ‘breakage’. Something breaks, crystal ice instantly becomes liquid water i.e. something totally different. In order to be specific, use the word Sunder for breakage in the singularity. 

The Singleton Sunderer the active agent that does the breakage, and in Qur’an IT is named as Fatir (Sunderer). And there are no other sunderers.

Breakage as such has three categories:

1. Fatara: Cosmos Wide Breakage

2. Falaqa: Breakage with splinters  (shattered subparts)

3. Shaqqa: Breakage when the beginning or head of something pushes through

Each category is highly particularized form of breakage.



The origin of the word Al-Fatr is Shaqq(Narrow opening, crack, fissure, split, slit, gap, tear, rip) along the length of an object.
Fatra-t of animal means to milk it by means of two fingers, Fatra-t of dough means to knead the dough (by fingers) into bread. (Dara: let’s call this Handiwork)

Lisan Al-Arab
Ibn Manzour

Fatara the fingers means fingers moved to sign some expression.

لسان العرب     ابن منظور

 وفَطَر أَصابعَه فَطْراً: غمزها

Al-Fitra-t: Allah Fatara the creation means Allah brought entities into being and invented them in a form (like kneading the dough) trained for a particular way of action (behavior):

فِطۡرَتَ ٱللَّهِ ٱلَّتِى فَطَرَ ٱلنَّاسَ عَلَيۡہَا‌ۚ

30:30.  Allah‘s Handiwork, that which, Fatara people conformally (according to the design of the handiwork)

Allah’s Handiwork has focused and positioned the human nature to believe (in Tauhid (Divine Oneness))

مفردات ألفاظ القرآن. – للأصفهاني
كتاب الفاء
-أصل الفطر: الشق طولا، يقال: فطر فلان كذا فطرا، وأفطر هو فطورا، وانفطر انفطارا. قال تعالى: {هل ترى من فطور} <الملك/3>، أي: اختلال ووهي فيه، وذلك قد يكون على سبيل الفساد، وقد يكون على سبيل الصلاح قال: {السماء منفطر به كان وعده مفعولا} <المزمل/18>. وفطرت الشاة: حلبتها بأصبعين، وفطرت العجين: إذا عجنته فخبرته من وقته، ومنه: الفطرة. وفطر الله الخلق، وهو إيجاده الشيء وإبداعه على هيئة مترشحة لفعل من الأفعال، فقوله: {فطرت الله التي فطر الناس عليها} <الروم/30>، فإشارة منه تعالى إلى ما فطر. أي: أبدع وركز في الناس من معرفته تعالى، وفطرة الله: هي ما ركز فيه من قوته على معرفة الإيمان، وهو المشار إليه بقوله: {ولئن سألتهم من خلقهم ليقولن الله} <الزخرف/87>، وقال: {الحمد لله فاطر السموات والأرض} <فاطر/1>، وقال: {الذي فطرهن} <الأنبياء/56>، {والذي فطرنا} <طه/72>، أي: أبدعنا وأوجدنا. يصح أن يكون الانفطار في قوله: {السماء منفطر به} <المزمل/18>، إشارة إلى قبول ما أبدعها وأفاضه علينا منه. والفطر: ترك الصوم. يقال: فطرته، وأفطرته، وأفطر هو (انظر: الأفعال 4/12)، وقيل: للكمأة: فطر، من حيث إنها تفطر الأرض فتخرج منها.

Lisan Al-Arab
Ibn Manzour

Fitra-t to invent but for the first time. Allah Fatara means Allah created the people and started them (for the first time). Ibn Abbas said I could not understand what Allah is Fatir of heavens and earth means until I heard two bedouins arguing over a well when one said: I Fatara this well i.e. I started this well.

لسان العرب     ابن منظور
 .وفَطَرَ الله الخلق يَفْطُرُهم: خلقهم وبدأَهم. والفِطْرةُ: الابتداء والاختراع. وفي التنزيل العزيز: الحمد لله فاطِرِ السمواتِ والأَرضِ؛ قال ابن عباس، رضي الله عنهما: ما كنت أَدري ما فاطِرُ السموات والأَرض حتى أَتاني أَعرابيّان يختصمان في بئر فقال أَحدهما: أَنا فَطَرْتُها أَي أَنا ابتدأْت حَفْرها. وذكر أَبو العباس أَنه سمع ابن الأَعرابي يقول: أَنا أَول من فَطَرَ هذا أَي ابتدأَه.

Fatir is the grammatical agent of verb Fatara i.e. the Sunderer, the sunderer across the cosmos, the starter of all objects going through the cosmic-wide sunderance of singularity.



Falaqa is Shaqq(Narrow opening, crack, fissure, split, slit, gap, tear, rip) of an object when some broken parts of it are discernible and patent from other parts.  (Dara: you might say something breaks open to see what is inside)

Faliq is the grammatical agent, the doer of Falaqa or the sunderer.

Dara: Faliq of Dawn is the sunderer of the singularity of darkness, breakage through which light appears.

مفردات ألفاظ القرآن. – للأصفهاني
كتاب الفاء
-الفلق: شق الشيء وإبانة بعضه عن بعض. يقال: فلقته فانفلق. قال تعالى: {فالق الإصباح} <الأنعام/96>، {إن الله فالق الحب والنوى} <الأنعام/ 95>، {فانفلق فكان كل فرق كالطود العظيم} <الشعراء/63>، وقيل للمطمئن من الأرض بين ربوتين: فلق، وقوله: {قل أعوذ برب الفلق} <الفلق/1>، أي: الصبح، وقيل: الأنهار المذكورة في قوله: {أم من جعل الأرض قرارا وجعل خلالها أنهارا} <النمل/61>، وقيل: هو الكلمة التي علم الله تعالى موسى ففلق بها البحر، والفلق: المفلوق، كالنقض والنكث للمنقوض والمنكوث، وقيل الفلق: العجب، والفيلق كذلك، والفليق والفالق: ما بين الجبلين وما بين السنامين من ظهر البعير

Tafsir Kabir

Al-Falaq is breakage, between ‘Adam (Non-being) to Being (Wujud),  necessary for an object to become (in our world here). And the Aql (Intellect) imagines Non-being as a continuous connected gap-less darkness without any form of crack or opening or fissure, then when the object appears existing (in our world) then Aql(Intellect) renders a breakage.

تفسير مفاتيح الغيب ، التفسير الكبير/ الرازي (ت 606 هـ)
القول الأول: وهو مروي عن ابن عباس وقول الضحاك ومقاتل: { فَالِقُ ٱلْحَبّ وَٱلنَّوَىٰ } أي خالق الحب والنوى. قال الواحدي: ذهبوا بفالق مذهب فاطر، وأقول: الفطر هو الشق، وكذلك الفلق، فالشيء قبل أن دخل في الوجود كان معدوماً محضاً ونفياً صرفاً، والعقل يتصور من العدم ظلمة متصلة لا انفراج فيها ولا انفلاق ولا انشقاق، فإذا أخرجه المبدع الموجد من العدم إلى الوجود، فكأنه بحسب التخيل والتوهم شق ذلك العدم وفلقه. وأخرج ذلك المحدث من ذلك الشق. فبهذا التأويل لا يبعد حمل الفالق على الموجد والمحدث والمبدع.

Tafsir Kabir


6:95 Inna (Directional Actualizer, Forsooth) Allah (is) Faliq (Sunderer) of seed and fruit-kernel. IT causes the living to issue (exit) from the dead, and Issuer (exit-er) of dead from the living. That is for you (people) namely Allah.

Remark: Za-Li-Kum (That is for you (people)) is used in rare occasion as opposed to the oft-repeated standing phrase Za-Li-Ka (That is for you (Muhammad) the address is for all humanity to know Faliq sunders the singularity for seeds to sprout, sunders the darkness for the light to illuminate and sunders cosmos wide singularity for Taudhi (Divine Oneness) to appear as part of our innate inert nature.

IT causes the living to issue (exit) from the dead: Explicates (Tafsir, Bayan) the Faliq earlier in the sentence


Issuer (exit-er) of dead from the living: Is like a noun in conjunction to the earlier noun Faliq i.e. they are the same nouns the one that sunders the seeds and the one that issues the dead from the living.

تفسير مفاتيح الغيب ، التفسير الكبير/ الرازي (ت 606 هـ)
قلنا: قوله: { وَمُخْرِجُ ٱلْمَيّتِ مِنَ ٱلْحَىّ } معطوف على قوله: { فَالِقُ ٱلْحَبّ وَٱلنَّوَىٰ } وقوله: { يُخْرِجُ ٱلْحَىَّ مِنَ ٱلْمَيّتِ } كالبيان والتفسير لقوله: { فَالِقُ ٱلْحَبّ وَٱلنَّوَىٰ } لأن فلق الحب والنوى بالنبات والشجر النامي من جنس إخراج الحي من الميت، لأن النامي في حكم الحيوان.


Lisan Al-Arab
Ibn Manzour

Shaqq(Narrow opening, crack, fissure, split, slit, gap, tear, rip) is a breakage in clear view or concealed.

لسان العرب     ابن منظور
الشَّقُّ: مصدر قولك شَقَقْت العُود شَقّاً والشَّقُّ: الصَّدْع البائن، وقيل: غير البائن، وقيل: هو الصدع عامة. وفي التهذيب: الشَّقُّ الصدع في عود أَو حائط أو زُجاجة؛

Lisan Al-Arab
Ibn Manzour

Shaqqa plants means the earth cracked and plants germinated. And at that the very beginning of germination and sticking out.


Similarly Shaqqa the tooth of the infant means the first signs of new tooth pushing out of the gums.
Shaqqa the palm tree means its top leaves appeared.
Similarly Shaqqa is used for dawn as well.

لسان العرب     ابن منظور
 وشَقَّ النبتُ يَشُقُّ شُقوقاً: وذلك في أَول ما تَنْفَطِر عنه الأرض. وشقَّ نابُ الصبي يَشُقُّ شقوقاً: في أَوّل ما يظهر. وشقَّ نابُ البعير يَشُقُّ شقوقاً: طلع، وهو لغة في شَقا إذا فطر نابُه. وشَقَّ بصر الميِّت شقوقا: شخَص ونظر إلى شيء لا يرتدُّ إليه طرْفُه وهو الذي حضره الموت، ولا يقال شَقَّ بَصَرَه. وفي الحديث: أَلم تَرَوْا إلى الميِّت إذا شَقَّ بَصَرُه أي انفتح، وضَمُّ الشين فيه غيرُ مختار
والشَّقُّ: الصبح. وشَقَّ الصبحُ يَشُقُّ شَقّاً إذا طلع. وفي الحديث:فلما شَقَّ الفَجْران أمَرنا بإقامة الصلاة؛ يقال: شَقَّ الفجرُ وانْشَقَّ إذا طلع كأنه شَقَّ موضعَ طلوعِه وخرج منه.
أَشَقَّ النخلُ طلعت شَواقُّه

Therefore Shaqqa deals with breakage when the beginning of an entity shows through the breakage. Mufradat

54:1 The Hour (of Judgment) is nigh, and the moon is cleft asunder.

ٱقۡتَرَبَتِ ٱلسَّاعَةُ وَٱنشَقَّ ٱلۡقَمَرُ

The Arab used to make circumstances plain by moon e.g. the hardship of the Dooms Day is rendered by the splitting of the moon. (Hassan Basari)


كتاب الشين
-الشق: الخرم الواقع في الشيء. يقال: شققته بنصفين. قال تعالى: {ثم شققنا الأرض شقا} <عبس/26>، {يوم تشقق الأرض عنهم سراعا} <ق/44>، {وانشقت السماء} <الحاقة/16>، {إذا السماء انشقت} <الانشقاق/1>، {وانشق القمر} <القمر/1>، وقيل: انشقاقه في زمن النبي عليه الصلاة والسلام، وقيل: هو انشقاق يعرض فيه حين تقرب القيامة (وهذا قول الحسن البصري، انظر: تفسير الماوردي 4/135)، وقيل: معناه: وضح الأمر (وذلك لأن العرب تضرب بالقمر مثلا فيما وضح أمره، قال الشاعر:
أقيموا بني أمي صدور مطيكم * فإني إلى قوم سواكم لأميل
فقد حمت الحاجات، والليل مقمر * وشدت لطيات مطايا وأرحل

Templates Mu-n-fa’il, ‘I-n-fi’al 

Normally the Arabic verbs are of the tertiary form Fa-‘A-La, but some of their derivations occur in other exotic templates for example Shaqqa means breakage also ‘I-n-Shaqqa means breakage both in past tense. However ‘I-n-Shaqqa carries more semantic i.e. moon sundered but it was not the doing of the moon itself, the breakage occurred out of its control.

Other examples:

82:1 When the Sky is cleft asunder

إِذَا ٱلسَّمَآءُ ٱنفَطَرَتۡ

26:63 Then We told Moses by inspiration: “Strike the sea with thy rod.” So it divided, and each separate part became like the huge, firm mass of a mountain.

فَأَوۡحَيۡنَآ إِلَىٰ مُوسَىٰٓ أَنِ ٱضۡرِب بِّعَصَاكَ ٱلۡبَحۡرَ‌ۖ فَٱنفَلَقَ فَكَانَ كُلُّ فِرۡقٍ۬ كَٱلطَّوۡدِ ٱلۡعَظِيمِ


Normally a subject in a sentence is acted upon by the grammatical doer’s doing (verb).

Mu-n-Fa’il (or ‘I-n-fi’al) describe actions happening to the subject but there is no (obvious) grammatical doer even if the action commences from the subject itself. Examples: A person blushing, joy from hearing music or excitement of a lover at the sight of his beloved.

In general for Mu-n-Fa’il (or ‘I-n-fi’al) there is no grammatical doer, though the doer is assumed to be Allah.

مفردات ألفاظ القرآن. – للأصفهاني
كتاب الفاء
التأثير من جهة مؤثر، وهو عام لما كان بإجادة أو غير إجادة، ولما كان بعلم أو غير علم، وقصد أو غير قصد، ولما كان من الإنسان والحيوان والجمادات، والعمل مثله، والصنع أخص منهما كما تقدم ذكرهما (تقدم في مادة (عمل)، ومادة (صنع) )، قال: {وما تفعلوا من خير يعلمه الله} <البقرة/197>، {ومن يفعل ذلك عدوانا وظلما} <النساء/30>، {يا أيها الرسول بلغ ما أنزل إليك من ربك وإن لم تفعل فما بلغت رسالته} <المائدة/67>، أي: إن لم تبلغ هذا الأمر فأنت في حكم من لم يبلغ شيئا بوجه، والذي من جهة الفاعل يقال له: مفعول ومنفعل، وقد فصل بعضهم بين المفعول والمنفعل، فقال: المفعول يقال إذا اعتبر بفعل الفاعل، والمنفغل إذا اعتبر قبول الفعل في نفسه، قال: فالمفعول أعم من المنفعل؛ لأن المنفعل يقال لما لا يقصد الفاعل إلى إيجاده وإن تولد منه، كحمرة اللون من خجل يعتري من رؤية إنسان، والطرب الحاصل عن الغناء، وتحرك العاشق لرؤية معشوقه. وقيل لكل فعل: انفعال إلا للإبداع الذي هو من الله تعالى، فذلك هو إيجاد عن عدم لا في عرض وفي جوهر بل ذلك هو إيجاد الجوهر.

© 2013-2002,  Dara O Shayda

Alanine: Example of Primordial Non-Cognitive Decision

Salaam everyone

Alanine  is a sugar abound in nature, in both right-handed and left-handed configuration i.e. one molecule mirror image of the other:



As Richard Feynman explains below if life was just physics and chemistry, then living beings would have consumed same proportions of each sugar. But they do not!

Most life is based upon L-Alanine and its mirror image D-Alanine rarely used!

So we could say, in the language of Ibn Sina’s Qadha (Primordial Decision) that: A primordial decision was made for life to consume and be based upon the L-Alanine.

Consider this as an Ishara (Vectorial Noesis), best pointed at by Richard Feynman:

The Feynman Lectures on Physics








© 2015-2002,  Dara O Shayda